Amphotericin b
Amphotericin B

Amphotericin B: Indication, How It Work, Storage, Precautions, Usage, Dosage, Side Effects, Contraindications, and Interactions

Amphotericin B is a drug used to treat serious and dangerous yeast infections. The drug is available in oral (medicinal) and injection.

Amphotericin B works by stopping the growth and breeding of fungi

Amphotericin B Indication

To treat diseases caused by fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, severe systemic fungal infections, etc.

How does Amphotericin B work?

Amphotericin B works by binding to part of the fungal cell membrane and it is because of this bond that the fungal cell membrane will leak and the inside of the fungal cell seeps out so that the fungus will be damaged and die.

Amphotericin B Storage

Store at temperatures between 2-8°C. Do not freeze and protect from direct sunlight.

Precautions when administering Amphotericin B

  • Do not use amphotericin B if you have a history of allergies to this drug.
  • Tell your doctor if you have a history of kidney, heart and liver disease, blood transfusions.
  • Let your doctor know if you’ve recently had surgery, including dental surgery.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy before taking amphotericin B.
  • Tell your doctor if you are using other medications, including supplements, and herbal products.
  • Immediately check with your doctor if you have an overdose or allergic reaction to the drug after taking amphotericin B.

Amphotericin B Usage

Amphotericin B is available in injection or by mouth. For preparations in the form of injections, before use must be dissolved first with the appropriate solvent until it reaches the required concentration of solution. Those of you who have hypersensitivity to amphotericin B, are pregnant and breastfeeding, have kidney and liver disorders, or patients undergoing cancer treatment should be careful using this drug.

Amphotericin B Dosage

Amphotericin B is administered to patients, according to the indications and categories of patients

Older persons Dose of Amphotericin B

Intrathecal

Severe meningitis.
Using conventional amphotericin B: If necessary, test a 1 mg infused dose for 20-30 minutes. Initially, 25 mcg was gradually increased to a tolerable maximum without excessive discomfort. The usual dose is 0.25-1 mg 2-4 times a week.

Intravenous

  • Aspergillosis spread
    → Using conventional amphotericin B: If necessary, test a 1 mg infused dose for 20-30 minutes. 0.6-0.7 mg/kg daily for 3-6 months.
  • Endocarditis
    → Using conventional amphotericin B: If necessary, test a 1 mg infused dose for 20-30 minutes. 0.6-1 mg/kg/day for 1 week, then 0.8 mg/kg/day daily for 6-8 weeks postoperatively.
  • Severe systemic fungal infections
    → Using conventional amphotericin B: If necessary, test a 1 mg infused dose for 20-30 minutes. Initial dose: 250 mcg/kg daily, gradually increased to max 1 mg/kg/day. For terminally ill patients, up to 1.5 mg/kg can be administered daily or alternative days may be required. The daily dose is infused for 2-4 hours with a concentration of 100 mcg/ml in glucose 5%. If treatment is discontinued for more than 7 days, start again with 250 mcg/kg daily and increase slowly.

Irrigation

Candiduria
→ Using conventional amphotericin B: 50 mg daily in 1000 ml of sterile water with continuous irrigation of the bladder for 5-10 days or until the culture is clean

Oral/Drinkable

Oral Candidiasis
→ Using conventional amphotericin B: 1 ml oral suspension 100mg/ml 4 times a day kept in the mouth for several minutes before ingestion or 10 mg loz dissolved in the mouth 4 times a day, increased to 8 loz daily if necessary or Tab 100-200 mg/suspension 4x/day. Continue for 48 hours after the lesion is cured.

Amphotericin B Side Effects

Side effects do not necessarily occur in every use of the drug. However, if there are any annoying or worsening side effects, seek medical help immediately.

Some of the side effects that can occur after the use of amphotericin B are:

  • Fever
  • Tremble
  • Chills
  • Redness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Dizzy
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Headache
  • Shortness of breath or rapid breathing that can occur 1-3 hours after infusion is used

Amphotericin B contraindications

Avoid the use of amphotericin B in patients with medical conditions, such as:

  • Allergy to amphotericin B
  • Mild fungal infections of the mouth, esophagus, or va**gina

Amphotericin B interactions

Drug interactions may occur if you use or take several medications at the same time. Be sure to always consult your doctor before using it. If necessary, your doctor may reduce the dose or replace the drug with other alternative medications.

Taking amphotericin B with other drugs together can cause several interactions including:

Furosemide

The use of amphotericin B along with furosemide may increase the risk of low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia).

Amiodarone

Concomitant use of amphotericin B may increase the risk of irregular heart rhythm.

Cidofovir and tacrolimus

The above drugs can cause kidney problems. Using it alongside other drugs that can also affect the kidneys, such as amphotericin B can increase that risk.


The information provided is not in lieu of direct medical consultation with a doctor, or directing the use of drugs with a particular brand. Use of the drug should be with a doctor’s prescription. The availability of the drug depends on the indications approved by the Food and Drug Administration.


Source:

  • Image: The chemistds, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Video: eGPAT

Last Updated on June 19, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team


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