Plant cell
Plant Cell

Plant Cell: Definition, 6 Characteristics, Functions, Structure, and Organelles

Do you know what is a plant cell?? Cells are the smallest units of living things. In the cell there is a protoplasm composed of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids. Based on the type of cells is distinguished into prokaryotic, namely cells that do not have a core membrane and eukaryotic cells, namely cells that have a core membrane.

From the discovery of cells and all their activities, the cell theory was born, that cells are structural unity, functional unity, growth unity, hereditary survival, and reproductive unity of living beings.

Structurally the cell is the constituent living part of the cell covering the plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. The plasma membrane is composed of lipoprotein, which is the bond between fat and protein.

Plant Cell Definition

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that are covered by a membrane.

Eukaryotic cells are cells that have a nucleus in them. Although both are classified as eukaryotic cells, plant cells and animal cells have prominent differences. In plant cells, there is a cell wall that covers the cell.

In addition, plant cells also have several organelles or constituent components that are different from animal cells. One of the differences in organelles that plant cells have is chloroplasts. Chloroplasts in plants have an important role in photosynthesis.

Characteristics of a plant cell

  • It has a cell wall.
  • Have plastids (chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and leucoplasts).
  • Has a large vacuole.
  • The size of the nucleus is smaller than the vacuole.
  • The cell shape is fixed.
  • Its energy storage is in the form of starch granules.

Plant cell functions

  • Organize all plant activities.
  • Play a direct role in the process of plant growth.
  • Storing and carrying the genetic properties of plants.
  • Compose and maintain the body shape of plants.

Plant cell structure

In general, the cell structure is divided into eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. Plant cells belong to eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells are cells of nucleated living things wrapped in membranes. The characteristics of eukaryotic cells are as follows:

  • The cytoplasm and nucleoplasm are separate.
  • Genetic material is inside the cell nucleus.
  • It has organelles such as Golgi body, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and chloroplasts (in plants).
  • Genetic material (DNA) is shaped like a double band arranged spirally wrapped around each other (double helix).

Plant cell organelles

As we already know, plant cells consist of several parts called organelles. These organelles have their own role in regulating cell life.

Here are some organelles that are in the plant cells.


Each plant cell must have a nucleus. In the nucleus there is genetic material or chromosomes that carry the properties of the plant itself.

The nucleus has an important role in plant cells, which regulate metabolic processes such as cell division, cell growth and protein synthesis. There is the nucleus called the nucleoplasm.

Chloroplasts (Plastids)

In plant cells, there is an organelle that carries pigment in plants called chloroplasts.

In chloroplasts, there is a green chlorophyll pigment that gives a green color to plants.

In addition, chloroplasts also have an important role where chloroplasts will perform photosynthesis with the help of sunlight.


The ribosome form is very small and has two types, namely free and bound. Both have the same function, namely to process proteins in plant cells.
In ribosomes contained ribonucleic acid as much as 60% and protein as much as 40%.


Mitochondria are very easily visible due to their large, oval shape. Its large shape contains enzymes to break down carbohydrates.

The main function of mitochondria is to provide energy intake in the form of ATP, which is useful to maintain plant sustainability.

Golgi apparatus

Golgi’s body is in the shape of a curved select bag. This Golgi body has a function to remove chemical substances out of cells.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

ER or endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle that connects the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

The function of this endoplasmic reticulum is to transport fat synthesis, as the storage location of various compounds such as steroids, phospholipids and glycolipids.


Vacuole is a container used as a cell storage location. Vacuoles have a larger size compared to other parts of the organelle.

Vacuole is shaped like sacks that hold liquids produced from organic and inorganic compounds.

In vacuole stored various food substances such as sugar and also protein. Vacuoles have the primary function of stabilizing PH levels, regulating the pressure that occurs inside cells and separating residual cell metabolism substances.

The membrane layer of the vacuole is called tonoplast.

Learn more about What is The Function of The Vacuole?


Peroxisomes are organelles in the cytoplasm that are small in size and have a single membrane layer.

The function of this organelle is to process fatty acids to turn into sugar components that are useful for metabolic processes in plants. Peroxisome contains about 40 enzymes that function to process toxins into water.

Last Updated on February 26, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team

Sharing is caring!