Fungi Kingdom Definition, Classification, and Structure – Fungi kingdom are one of the kingdoms in the six kingdom classification system. At first, experts thought fungi belong to the group of the plant kingdoms (Plantae).
But after further research, finally found the facts that fungi are not the same as plants in terms of cell structure or the acquisition of food. Fungi have different characteristics than other groups of organisms. Therefore, fungi are grouped into separate kingdoms, namely the Fungi Kingdom.
The classification of fungi kingdom is based on the presence or absence of fruit bodies during their life cycle. In addition, it is based also on the characteristics of spores, both ase**xual and se**xual. Based on the structure of the body and the way of reproduction, fungi kingdom can be grouped into four divisions, namely zygomycotina, ascomycotina, Basidiomycota, and deuteromycota.
Fungi Kingdom Definition
At first glance, fungi have a plant-like shape. But it turns out that fungi are not included in the world of plants (Plantae), because fungi do not have chlorophyll so cannot produce their own food through a process called photosynthesis.
Actually, when viewed from the way fungi get food, fungi are more likely to be like heterotrophic animals or get food from other sources or organisms.
There are more than 50,000 species of fungi in the world, with properties or characters that are not the same as each other. Mycology is the science of fungi, which comes from the Greek, mykos which means fungi or one type of fungi in the form of an umbrella.
Fungi kingdom classification
Based on the structure of the body and the way of reproduction, fungi are divided into 4 divisions, classification of fungi based on generative (se**xual) reproduction methods, namely:
Characteristics of Zygmycota:
- The body consists of a non-insulated hyphae and many cell nuclei
- Produces zigospores as a result of se**xual reproduction
- Septa is found only in cells for reproduction
- Cell walls contain chitin substances
- Doesn’t have a fruit body
- Vegetative / ase**xual reproduction by forming vegetative spores / ase**xual spores i.e. Sporangiospores occurs when environmental conditions are good and supportive and there can also be se**xually occur when environmental conditions are dry and unfavorable.
Characteristics of Ascomycota:
- Living saprophytic, parasitic or symbiotic
- There are unicellular bodies such as Saccharomyces and some are multicellular with insulated and branching hyphae.
- Ase**xual reproduction by forming conidiospores produced by structures called conidia while se**xual reproduction by forming ascospores inside the ascus. Generally the ascus is formed in the fruit body called ascocarp.
The Basidiomycota Division consists of about 25,000 species. This fungus is easily known because it generally has a fruit body like an umbrella. Although some of these fungi division can be consumed, some fungi can also be deadly.
Some members of the genus Amanita contain a very deadly poison. Some types of Basidiomycota can also harm plants, for example, causing death in farm crops. Other examples of Basidiomycota include Auricularia polytricha, Volvariella volvaceae (paddy straw mushroom or straw mushroom), and Ganoderma
Life cycle: ase**xual reproduction by producing conidia or producing a special hyphae called conidiophore. It is likely that this fungus is a development of fungi classified as ascomycetes to Basidiomicetes but not known to be related.
Kingdom fungi structure
Below is the structure of the fungus, here is the explanation;
- Become a vegetative part of the fungus in the form of a thread.
- Hyphae has cells which shape is elongated by the number of nuclei separated into parts by septa / septum.
- It becomes branches of hyphae that look like webbing.
- Coenocytic hyphae: Hyphae in fungi that do not have a partition.
- Monocytic hyphae: Hyphae in fungi that have a partition with a cell nucleus.
- Dikaryotic hyphae: Hyphae that has 2 cell nuclei.
- Haustoria hyphae: Hyphae is specialized in parasitic fungi that have the function to absorb food on the host.
Last Updated on February 28, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team