Types Of Muscular Dystrophy

9 Types Of Muscular Dystrophy That You Must Know

Muscular dystrophy is a weakened muscular condition caused by genetic mutations. Genes that are supposed to be tasked with producing proteins to keep muscle mass in turn cause muscles to weaken due to protein deficiency. The disease consists of several types, so the symptoms will differ. Let’s understand more about the different types of muscular dystrophy through the following reviews.

Muscular dystrophy is caused by a genetic mutation that interferes with the production of muscle proteins needed to build and maintain muscle health.

The main cause of muscular dystrophy is genetic. A person with a family history of muscular dystrophy, has an increase in the likelihood of experiencing this condition or passing it to its offspring.

Read also: 14 Muscular Dystrophy Symptoms and Causes

Different types of muscular dystrophy you should know

There are many types of muscular dystrophy so not everyone will show the same symptoms and need the same treatment.

The most common form of muscular dystrophy is the Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This condition usually affects boys, but other variations can be attacked by adulthood.

Some types of muscular dystrophy you need to know, among others:

Myotonic muscular dystrophy (Steinert’s disease)

The most common type of muscular dystrophy occurs in older people who originally arises from childhood. People with this condition often have myotonia (cramps or stiffness) in prolonged muscle after use and deteriorate when exposed to cold air.

In addition to muscle disorders, the disease can affect the central nervous system, heart, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and hormone-producing glands.

Duchenne Muscular dystrophy:

The most common form of disease. Symptoms in this condition usually appear in the first three years of life; A person suffering from this condition usually can only sit in a wheelchair at the age of 12 and die of respiratory failure in the early years in the mid-twenties.

Becker Muscular dystrophy

Types Of Muscular Dystrophy - Becker

Symptoms of Becker muscular dystrophy are similar to Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy. But Becker muscular dystrophy began around adolescence (later than Duchenne). The development of the disease is also much slower. The first signs of Becker muscular dystrophy can be difficult to walk fast, run, and climb stairs. Other symptoms may include:

  • Muscle weakness that starts in the pelvis, shoulders, hips, and thighs.
  • Difficulty learning how to walk.
  • Limp.
  • Walking on toes.
  • Calves are larger than normal.
  • Muscle cramps during exercise.
  • Difficulty lifting objects above the waist height because the shoulders and arms are weak.
  • Cardiac and respiratory problems (later in the day).

Often kids with Becker muscular dystrophy can run. However, when older they may need to use a stick or wheelchair to get around.

Read also: 14 Muscular Endurance Exercises: List and How to Do It

Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

As the name suggests, this muscular dystrophy is congenital from birth. The usual symptoms seen after the birth and age of 2 years are characterized by the proper motor function and muscle control of the child. Although the symptoms vary and tend to slow development, congenital muscular dystrophy can attack both boys and girls. The following symptoms may arise:

  • Weak muscles
  • Poor motor control
  • Inability to sit or stand without help
  • Seizures
  • Leg abnormalities
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Problems in talking
  • Mild intellectual interference

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD)

This form of muscular dystrophy can affect both men and women, although men are recorded more and more early and severe symptoms. These symptoms of muscular dystrophy usually appear in adolescence, although occasionally appearing at the age of 40.

Muscular dystrophy that affects the muscles in the face, shoulders, upper arms, upper back, and calves have symptoms in the form of:

  • Difficulty chewing or swallowing
  • Slanted shoulders
  • Twisted Mouth
  • Wing like shoulder blades
  • Weak leg Muscles
  • Hearing and respiratory problems in some people


This type of muscle dystrophy affects teenagers and older people. Symptoms only occur in the muscles around the hips, shoulders, arms, and legs that will weaken gradually.

The worst complication is not being able to walk.

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

The disease affects only the muscles around the eyes, face, and throat, followed by the weakness of the pelvic and shoulder muscles over time.

People with this condition will be difficult to swallow, speak, often choke, and experience recurrent lung pneumonia.


This type of muscular dystrophy is rare, but lighter and only affects older people. Affected areas of the muscles are part of the entire hands and feet. The development of illness is slow compared to other types.


A rare type of muscular dystrophy that commonly affects boys. The initial symptoms are muscular weakness around the shoulders, upper arms, and lower legs.

Over time, muscle weakness will spread to the pelvic area and chest muscles. 

Muscle weakness is also followed by a muscle shortening (contracture).

Read also: 3 Types, Function, and How Does The Muscular System Work


Muscular dystrophy is a form of disorder that causes damage and weakening of the muscles of the body. There are more than 30 types of muscular dystrophy, of which 9 are primary and are used to diagnose. Some of them attack right after the birth and childhood, while others attack in adolescence to adulthood.

Some have symptoms that develop slowly, although the rest are rapidly developing. Many of these types of muscular dystrophy that affect the heart and breathing, which are not infrequently found can shorten the life of the sufferer.

Last Updated on December 30, 2019 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team