Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Complications

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs, such as the cervix, uterus, and ovaries. One of the most common causes of pelvic inflammation is bacterial infection due to se**xually transmitted infections (STIs).

Pelvic inflammation is commonly experienced by women aged 15-25 years who are actively having se**x. Pelvic inflammation can be characterized by pain in the pelvis or lower abdomen. This condition needs to be treated to prevent complications, such as pregnancy outside the womb (ectopic) or infertility.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Causes

Pelvic inflammation is most often caused by a bacterial infection that spreads from the vagi**na or cervix to deeper reproductive organs, such as the uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries.

The types of bacteria that often cause pelvic inflammation are the bacteria that cause STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea. In addition to bacteria, pelvic inflammation can also be caused by other pathogenic infections, such as Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, or Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2).

In addition, there are a number of factors that can increase a woman’s risk of developing pelvic inflammation, namely:

  • Aged 15–25 years old and se**xually active
  • Have had a pelvic inflammation or STIs.
  • Having se**x with changing partners
  • Having unprotected se**x
  • Damage to the cervix, including due to unsafe abor**tion
  • Recently undergoing a medical procedure involving the process of opening the cervix, such as inserting contraceptives into the uterus or spirals.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Symptoms

Symptoms of pelvic inflammation include:

  • The presence of pain in the pelvis and lower abdomen;
  • There is a vagi**nal discharge with an unpleasant smell;
  • Abnormal bleeding that comes out through Miss V, especially during se**xual inter**course or can also occur between menstrual cycles;
  • Fever sometimes with chills;
  • Pain during inter**course; and
  • Pain or difficulty in urinating.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Diagnosis

Pelvic inflammation can be diagnosed through physical examination, anamnesis, and supporting examination. Supporting examinations that can be done and the easiest to do is blood tests and urine examinations, in addition, ultrasound imaging examinations  can also be done in helping to enforce the diagnosis.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Treatment

The information provided is not a substitute for medical advice. Always consult your doctor.

What are my treatment options for pelvic inflammatory disease?

Early treatment is very good, before the infection spreads. Your doctor may prescribe a combination of injectable or oral antibiotics.

In more severe infections, the first thing needed is hospitalization and antibiotics will be given through an IV. For pus around the Fallopian tubes or ovaries that don’t get better with antibiotics, your doctor will perform surgery (usually laparoscopic surgery) to remove the pus.

In addition, your partner needs treatment if he or she has the disease. You need to have safe se**x (using con**doms, for example) to prevent transmission.

PID is a condition that you can experience again if you are infected with an STI. You also have a higher risk of developing this condition when you have previously experienced it.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Prevention

To prevent pelvic inflammation, you are encouraged to do the following:

  • Having se**x with only one person, not changing partners.
  • Do an examination with your partner to find out the presence of infection in the genital area.
  • Not cleaning the vagi**na with a feminine cleanser.
  • After giving birth or miscarriage, it is best for inter**course to start again after four weeks later.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Complications

Pelvic inflammation that isn’t treated immediately can lead to some serious complications such as:

  • Permanent damage to the female reproductive organs
  • Chronic pelvic pain
  • Tubal or ectopic pregnancy
  • Infertility or inability to get pregnant
  • Tubo-ovarian abscess


Last Updated on February 8, 2022 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team