Definition, and Phases of The Menstrual Cycle – Women normally have menstruation every month. However, the cycle range may vary. There are regular menstruation every 21-35 days, some are sooner or later than that. Throughout the cycle, not many know that there is a process that occurs gradually in the womb. In fact, knowing it can help you predict when to menstruate again in the next month. For those of you who want to have children, knowing the stages of the menstrual phase is also very useful to know when is the most fertile time to start planning a pregnancy.
What is the menstrual cycle?
The menstrual cycle is a monthly process characterized by a series of changes in the body and reproductive organs of women. In this process, there are two main things that will happen, namely menstruation or pregnancy.
Every month, the ovaries will release the egg during a process called ovulation. At the same time, hormonal changes will help prepare your uterus as the forerunner of a place for babies to grow and develop.
If the egg has been removed and has not been fertilized, the lining of the uterus that was prepared for pregnancy will decay. The decay of the lining of the uterus through the vagi**na is what is called menstruation.
In the menstrual cycle, there are four phases that occur:
- Menstrual phase
- Follicular or pre-ovulation phase
- Ovulation phase
- Luteal phase
The length of each phase can vary from woman to woman. The length of the phase in one person can also change over time.
Can You Get Period While Pregnant?
Phases of The Menstrual Cycle
During menstruation, blood does not immediately come out. Though it is also important for woman to know the Phases of The Menstrual Cycle so that they know their own body better. Well, here’s the phase:
In this phase, the inner wall of the uterus containing blood, uterine wall cells, and mucus otherwise known as endometrium decays and exits through the vagi**na. This process starts from the first day of the menstrual cycle begins and can last from 4 to 6 days. At this stage, women usually feel some symptoms, such as lower abdominal and back pain due to the uterus contracting to help shed the endometrium.
The menstrual cycle in the follicular phase begins on the first day of menstruation (there is an overlap with the menstrual phase), and ends when ovulating.
Initially, the hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary gland to release follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone can stimulate the ovaries to produce 5-20 small bags called follicles.
Each of these follicles contains immature eggs. However, only the healthiest eggs will eventually ripen.
However, in rarer cases, a woman may have two mature eggs.
Furthermore, the rest of the follicles will be reabsorbed into the body.
Mature follicles can trigger estrogen spikes to thicken the lining of the uterus creating a nutrient-rich environment for embryos to grow.
This follicle phase lasts on average for 16 days, but can also range from 11-27 days.
Ovulation occurs in 12 to 16 days. The term ovulation indicates the formation of a mature egg from one of the ovaries.
Shortly before ovulation, the outer wall of the protruding follicle will swell rapidly. Then, a small area in the center of the capsule called the stigma, will protrude like a nipple.
Then, within 30 minutes the liquid begins to flow from the follicle through stigma. About two minutes later, the follicle will turn smaller as it loses its fluid.
Furthermore, the stigma will be torn quite large. Not only that, the viscous liquid found in the middle of the follicle evagination. Evagination is the folding of the cell layer from the outside in.
The viscous liquid will carry the ovum with it, and is surrounded by hundreds of small granulosa cells. These small granulosa cells are called corona radiata or cumulus cells.
During ovulation, the egg comes out of its follicle, but the ruptured follicle remains on the surface of the ovary. Over the next two weeks, the follicle will turn into a structure known as the corpus luteum. This structure begins to release progesterone, along with small amounts of estrogen. This combination of hormones, keeps the lining of the uterus thickened, waiting for the fertilized egg to stick (implanted).
If the fertilized egg is implanted in the lining of the uterus, it will produce the hormones necessary to retain the corpus luteum. These include human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a hormone detected in urine tests for pregnancy. The corpus luteum continues to produce the increased levels of progesterone needed to maintain a thickened lining of the uterus.
If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum dies on the 22nd day in a 28-day cycle. Decreased levels of progesterone cause the lining of the uterus to decay and is referred to as menstruation.
Last Updated on March 23, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team