Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease: Definition, 5 Stages, Causes, Diagnosis, and Prevention

Chronic renal impairment is a condition of kidney damage characterized by decreased kidney’s ability to perform its function. The kidneys are located beneath the ribs. The shape resembles a pair of nuts on both sides of the body.

What is CKD in medical terms?

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) or chronic renal failure (CRF) is a condition when kidney function decreases gradually due to kidney damage. Medically, chronic renal failure is defined as a decrease in the rate of filtration or renal filtration for 3 months or more.

Kidney function filters the waste and excess fluid from the blood before it is discharged through urine fluid. Every day, both kidneys filter about 120-150 liters of blood, and produce about 1-2 liters of urine.

In each kidney, there are a filter unit or a nephrons consisting of the glomerulus and tubules. Glomerulus filter fluids and waste to be removed, and prevents the release of blood cells and large molecules in the form of proteins.

Chronic kidney disease stages

Here are the stages of CKD according to guidelines:


Stage 1

Kidney disease with normal or increased eGFR

 >90 mL/min/1.73 m2

Stage 2

Kidney disease with a mild decrease in eGFR

 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2

Stage 3a

Kidney disease with mild to moderate eGFR

 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m2

Stage 3b

Kidney disease with moderate-severe eGFR reduction

 30-44 mL/min/1.73 m2

Stage 4

Kidney disease with severe reduction in eGFR

 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2

Stage 5

Kidney failure

 <15 mL/min/1.73 m2

Based on the guidelines, kidney disease can be classified as chronic if the eGFR decline has been occurring for at least 3 months. Whatever the cause, when there has been an eGFR has been on the figure ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, then the damage occurring to the nephron has also been severe and reached the stage.

If this is the case, the kidneys will have permanent sclerosis, which can lead to progressive deterioration of kidney function.

Chronic kidney disease causes

CKD can be caused by diseases that exist in the kidneys as well as from other body organs or outside the kidneys. For causes originating from the kidneys can be

  • Glomerular disease,
  • Polycystic kidney disease,
  • Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), or obstruction of kidney and
  • Urinary tract.
  • Infections of the kidneys.

Read also:
How long does it take to pass a kidney stone

Chronic kidney disease causes
Chronic kidney disease: Definition, 5 Stages, Causes, Diagnosis, and Prevention 2

Meanwhile, for causes of outside the kidneys can be in the form of

  • Diabetic kidney disease
  • Hypertension nephropathy.
  • High blood pressure, as time passes, it can add weight to the kidneys and inhibit the normal functioning of the kidneys.
  • Diabetes, because the amount of sugar that exceeds the normal limit in the blood can cause damage to existing filters in the kidneys.
  • High cholesterol, which can lead to the accumulation of fat deposits in the blood vessels that provide the blood supply to the kidneys.
  • The use of certain medications in the long term.

Diagnosis of chronic kidney disease

But if chronic kidney disease can be recognized early, then the treatment can start immediately, thus the complications of this disease can be prevented. Similarly, the introduction and treatment of hypertension and Diabetes mellitus in the early and continuous can prevent chronic kidney disease

Important renal function screening is performed to identify the presence of kidney disease as early as possible for effective management to be administered

To determine the deterioration of kidney function early on can be done by blood and urine test.

  • Blood screening with a view of creatinine levels, ureum, glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
  • Urine screening by viewing albumin or protein levels


A person’s risk factor can suffer from chronic renal impairment, among others:

  • Have uncontrolled diabetes and/or have uncontrolled high blood pressure, resulting in complications of kidney damage,
  • Having a family history of kidney failure,
  • Old age,
  • In a population group that has a diabetic or high blood pressure incidence rate.

Lifestyle changes such as healthy eating, regular exercise, avoiding the consumption of drugs that can damage the kidneys and avoid excess consumption of alco**hol will help prevent the occurrence of chronic renal failure.

Last Updated on July 15, 2020 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team

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