Graves disease
Graves Disease (Illustration / Drahreg01 / CC BY-SA (

Graves Disease: 21 Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

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Graves’ disease is one type of disorder in the immune system that is a common cause of hyperthyroidism or excess thyroid hormone production. In the sufferer of Graves, the immune system that should protect the body instead attacks the thyroid gland (autoimmune). This makes the thyroid gland produce more amount of thyroid hormones than the body needs.

Thyroid hormones regulate many bodily functions, including the nervous system, brain development, and body temperature. However, too much body levels of thyroid hormones can cause serious disorders of the heart, muscles, bones, menstrual cycles, eyes, skin, and fertility problems.

Graves disease Symptoms

A number of symptoms appearing in Graves’ disease are:

  • Enlarged thyroid gland (goiter)
  • Tremor on hand or fingers
  • Heart palpitations (heart pounding)
  • Erec**tile dysfunction (impotence)
  • Passionate se**x decline
  • Changes in menstrual cycles
  • Loss of weight without loss of appetite
  • Volatile moods
  • Sleeplessness (Insomnia)
  • Diarrhea
  • Hair loss
  • Easy to get tired
  • Sensitive to hot air.

In addition to some of the above symptoms, 30 percent of Graves sufferers experience a number of distinctive symptoms, namely the Graves‘ ophthalmopathy and the Dermopathy Graves. The symptoms of Graves‘ ophthalmopathy occur due to inflammation or disruption of the immune system, which affects the muscles and tissues around the eyes. Symptoms include:

  • Bulging eye (Exophthalmos)
  • Dry eyes
  • Eye pressure or pain
  • Swollen eyelids
  • Eye redness that can be caused by inflammation
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Double vision of one object (diplopia)
  • Loss of Vision

Causes of Graves’ disease

Graves’ disease is caused by autoimmune conditions. There is no theory that can clearly explain this autoimmune occurrence.

Risk factors of graves disease

Risk factors of graves disease, among others:

Family history of illness.

The history of family diseases with Graves’ disease and other autoimmune diseases can be a risk factor for a person. Especially since there are no theories that can definitively explain the occurrence of this disease, it is suspected that there is a certain gene that is derived and can cause this abnormality.


Women are more susceptible to suffering from graves disease than men.


Generally graves disease afflicts a person at the age of less than 40 years.

Other autoimmune diseases.

Other autoimmune disease such as type 1 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis also risks triggering graves disease.

Emotions and physical stress.

Both of these can be triggers of Graves’ disease, especially in patients with a similar family history of illness.

Read also: The Causes of Crying For No Reason


Pregnancy can be a factor that increases the likelihood of a woman suffering from graves’ disease, especially for women with other risk factors.


In addition to affecting the immune system, smo**king also increases the risk of Graves’ disease.

Graves Disease Treatment

Basically, the purpose of treatment of this disease is to reduce the excess production of thyroid hormones and its effects for the body. Well, here’s the method of treatment, according to experts.


These anti-thyroid medications have a role to interfere with the production of thyroid hormones triggered by iodine. This anti-thyroid medication can be consumed before or after undergoing radioactive iodine therapy as a compliment.

Radioactive iodine.

The purpose of this therapy is to destroy overactive thyroid cells while shrinking the thyroid gland. Well, this is expected to reduce the symptoms slowly. However, this therapy is not recommended for pregnant women, nursing mothers, and those who have vision problems. Because, the above condition will make symptoms worse.


This method is done by removing part or all of the thyroid gland. 

But should be known before choosing this method, surgical actions risk causing nerve damage to the vocal cord regulator. Not only that, surgical methods also have a risk of damage to the parathyroid gland. This gland function produces the hormone regulating calcium levels in the blood.

Last Updated on September 15, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team

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