In this article, we will discuss the DNA Definition, History, and Structure.
DNA is a nucleic acid located inside the nucleus of a cell and serves to store all information about living things in the form of genetic material. DNA also determines the nature of the inherited organism. There are so many benefits that we get from the use of DNA. Especially in matters related to genetics.
In general the meaning of DNA (Deoxybonukleic acid) is a nucleic acid in which there is a cell of living beings. DNA is the primary biomolecule of all living things that make up and compose dry weight. DNA consists of material that forms chromosomes and genetic information stored in the body of living beings.
The term DNA comes from two words, deoxyribose which means pentose sugar and nucleic meaning nucleus. DNA can also be interpreted as a chemical compound that is the genetic description of a living cell, which applies as a next generation. DNA as a blueprint where the life code of each living being is recorded on a cell.
DNA was first observed by a German biochemist, Frederich Miescher, in 1869. At the time, however, the researchers did not realize how important these molecules were.
It was only in 1953 that James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin realized that the structure of DNA (double helix) could bring biological information to any living being. The three men (with Franklin’s exception) were awarded the Nobel prize for their discovery in 1962.
Since science began to realize the importance of DNA in living things, breakthroughs have continued to be found and continue to this day.
For example, a 2017 study, which confirmed that random errors in DNA (not due to hereditary factors or environmental factors) have presented two-thirds of cancer-mutated cells.
DNA is composed of nucleotide sequences. A nucleotide is a combination of phosphate groups, pentose sugar, and nitrogen bases. The nucleotide is a combination of pentose sugar and nitrogen bases.
Each nucleotide contains a deoxyribose sugar group that has 5 carbon atoms, phosphate groups and nitrogen bases. All nucleotides in DNA contain the same sugar and phosphate groups that are also called “DNA backbones”.
As for nitrogen base, DNA is always paired between purine and pyrimidine groups. Purine bases are adenine (A) and guanine (G), while pyrimidine bases are cytosine (C) and thymine (T). In DNA, G pairs with C and A paired with T.
DNA with nitrogen base pairs is a real form of the gene. Generally, one gene contains tens to hundreds of thousands of base pairs.
The DNA regulates the life of a person’s cell and body through the process of replication (multiplying) and transcription (printing).
Replication is useful for cell division and reproduction, while the transcription is useful for protein synthesis. Through protein synthesis are formed various substances and organelles that regulate the body and affect the nature of living things.
The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints, recipes, or codes, as it contains instructions needed to build other components of the cell, such as proteins and RNA molecules.
According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), human DNA has about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of the base is the same in everyone.
Due to the very long DNA molecules, this makes it unable to get into cells without proper packaging. Thus, in order to fit inside the cell, the DNA is rolled tightly in a structure called a chromosome; each chromosome contains a single DNA molecule.
The DNA molecules in our bodies are arranged in packages called chromosomes. Each human has 23 pairs of chromosomes. One in 23 pairs of those chromosomes, called s**ex chromosomes, differs in both men and women. Women have two X chromosomes, men have X and Y chromosomes.
Each organism has a different number of chromosomes. For example, flies only 4 pairs. For example, flies only 4 pairs.
Humans have about 25,000 genes. This gene determines hair color, hair type, skin color, eye color, etc. For example, a person has curly black hair because genes inherited from his parents instruct hair follicle cells to form black and curly hair.
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