Mutations are one of the causes of various living creatures.
Mutations usually occur suddenly, randomly and are the basis for a variety of living organisms that are inherited
Mutations are coming from the Latin “mutatus” which means a change in.
Mutations are changes in the genetic material (DNA) and chromosomes that can be genetically inherited in their offspring.
According to Encyclopedia Britannica (2015), mutations are random changes and are expected to be largely damaging, but some may be beneficial in certain environments.
In general, mutations are the main source of genetic variation which is the raw material for evolution through natural selection.
The change in genetic material (DNA) causes the occurrence of gene change and eventually causes the change of allele and phenotype of the living creature.
Genes typically consist of a regulatory area that is responsible for turning on and off gene transcription at the right time during development.
It then carries the genetic code for the functional molecular structure and is generally protein.
Protein is a chain that usually consists of several hundred amino acids.
Not every DNA change is a mutation. It is said that mutations meet the following criteria:
- Alteration of genetic material (DNA)
- These changes can or cannot be repaired
- The result of the change is genetically inherited from their offspring.
Living beings, individuals or cells experiencing mutations are called beings, individuals, or mutant cells.
Gene Mutation Definition
Gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that forms the gene, so the sequence differs from what is found in most people.
Mutations have varying sizes; They can influence anywhere from a single DNA compound material (base pair) to a large chromosome segment that includes several genes.
Genes are parts of cells that are inside the chromosome. This section is responsible for carrying genetic information stored in DNA, from parent to child. This genetic information is what makes children and parents can have similarities. Ranging from the physical resemblance to face and hair to illnesses suffered.
In those who have a mutation of genes, the DNA in it is changing. Mutations can occur only in DNA or extend to chromosomes involving several types of genes.
Here are some facts about the mutation of genes that could describe more clearly the mechanisms of this event.
- When a mutation of genes occurs, cells that houses the genes and DNA may suffer damage. When cell damage occurs widely, various bodily functions will be interrupted, causing the sufferer to be affected by the disease.
- Mutation of genes can be inherited from one or both parents. The genetic information is found in both spe**rm and ovum. For some people, this mutation does not cause any meaningful problems. But for some, this condition can make the body more susceptible to disease.
- Gene mutations are also not always due to hereditary factors. External factors such as viruses, radiation, exposure to UV rays, and smo**king habits can also cause it.
- In many cases of gene mutation, damaged cells can actually be addressed by the immune system. Our immune system is sophisticated enough to be able to detect damaged or mutated cells and will then repair or destroy those cells.
Missense Mutation Definition
Missense mutation is a type of point mutation where different amino acids are placed inside the resulting protein, other than the original. In the process of converting DNA into proteins, the DNA language must be translated into a protein language.
During this process, changes in the DNA structure, or mutations, can alter the order of amino acids that create proteins. If it does not alter the structure or function of proteins, it may be regarded as a silent mutation. If it changes proteins, it is considered a missense mutation.
Silent Mutation Definition
A silent mutation is a type of mutation in a gene coding area that does not actually alter the amino acid sequence of the proteins that are created.
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