Cardiac arrest
Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac Arrest: Definition, 5 Causes – Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Whats cardiac arrest?

Sudden cardiac arrest is a condition when the heart stops beating suddenly. The condition can be characterized by loss of consciousness and stopping breathing.

The condition occurs due to an electrical disturbance in the heart, which causes the heart pump to stop. As a result, blood flow throughout the body also stops.

Sudden cardiac arrest can result in permanent brain damage to death. Therefore, this condition needs to be addressed immediately. Immediate help in the form of CPR and cardiac shock can help prevent these consequences.

Cardiac Arrest Causes

In contrast to heart attacks caused by blockages of blood vessels, sudden cardiac arrest is caused by a heart rhythm disorder, precisely ventricular fibrillation disease.

Ventricular fibrillation is a heart rhythm disorder that causes the heart ventricle to vibrate only, not beat to pump blood, causing the heart to stop abruptly.

Sudden cardiac arrest is more at risk from people who already have heart disease before, such as:

  • Coronary heart disease
  • Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy)
  • Heart valve disorders
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Marfan Syndrome.

In addition to suffering from heart disease, a person will be more at risk of sudden cardiac arrest if:

  • Over 45 years of age (male) or above 55 years (female).
  • Have a family with a history of heart disease.
  • Rarely exercise and are not actively moving.
  • Have a smo**king habit.
  • Abusing NAP**ZA such as co**caine or amphetamines.
  • Obese.
  • Has high cholesterol levels.
  • Have high blood pressure (hypertension).
  • Have diabetes.
  • Experiencing sleep apnea.
  • Suffers from chronic renal failure.

Cardiac Arrest Symptoms

Cardiac arrest is a type of heart disease can occur suddenly. Common cardiac arrest symptoms include:

  • Suddenly the body collapsed.
  • No pulse.
  • Not breathing.
  • Loss of consciousness.

In some cases, before cardiac arrest, there are some symptoms that are felt by the sufferer. Symptoms of cardiac arrest are:

  • Discomfort in the chest (angina).
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Heart palpitations (the sensation of a fast-beating heart).
  • Body weakness.

When to see a doctor?

Cardiac arrest is a very dangerous condition. Therefore, it is necessary for immediate medical treatment. You need to get medical help when experiencing the following cardiac arrest symptoms.

  • Frequent recurrent chest pain.
  • Heart palpitations.
  • Heart rate slows down or bradycardia.
  • Rapid and irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
  • Wheezing or shortness of breath for no apparent reason.
  • Fainting out or almost fainted.
  • Dizziness.

Each person’s body shows varying signs and symptoms. To get the most appropriate treatment and according to your health condition, immediately contact the nearest doctor.

Cardiac Arrest Diagnosis

By the time the patient arrives at the hospital, the doctor will check if the sufferer is breathing and has a heart rate or not. The doctor will also install a monitor to see the rhythm of the heart. The doctor will first treat the patient until the patient’s condition stabilizes or his heart beats again and returns to breathe, before conducting a follow-up examination.

Once the patient’s condition has stabilized, the doctor will conduct a series of tests to find out the causes and factors that trigger sudden cardiac arrest. The tests include:

Blood test

This blood test is done to look at body chemicals that affect heart function, such as potassium, magnesium, or hormone levels.

X-ray Photos

Photo A chest X-ray is required to check the size and structure of the heart and its blood vessels.


Cardiac ultrasound or echocardiography can assist doctors in identifying parts of the heart that are not functioning properly or are damaged, through sound waves.

Cardiac Catheterization

In cardiac catheterization, the doctor will inject a special dye in the blood vessels leading to the heart, to see if there is a blockage.

Nuclear scans

The test is carried out to check for disorders of the heart’s blood flow and heart function, using radioactive material.

Last Updated on November 7, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team

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