Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment – Hashimoto’s disease is an inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland due to the immune system attacking thyroid cells and tissues. Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism.
The thyroid gland serves to produce hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including metabolism, muscle strength, and body temperature. When exposed to Hashimoto’s disease, a person will experience a decrease in thyroid hormone levels.
Hashimoto’s disease can be experienced by men and women of all ages, including children. However, this condition is most common in women aged between 40-60 years.
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Definition
Hashimoto’s disease or also known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is a type of autoimmune disease that attacks the thyroid gland. This disease causes the thyroid gland to become inflamed, destructed, and eventually the gland is no longer able to produce thyroid hormones.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis symptoms
Hashimoto’s disease developed slowly over the years, causing hypothyroidism or abnormalities due to thyroid hormone deficiency.
When people with Hashimoto’s disease experience hypothyroidism, symptoms include:
- Tired and lethargic
- Pale and dry skin
- Nails become brittle
- Hair loss
- Weight gain without cause
- Weak muscles, pain, stiffness, or pain when touched
- Pain and stiffness of joints
- Enlarged tongue
- Sensitive to cold
- It’s hard to remember something.
Long-lasting hypothyroidism can also trigger an enlargement of the thyroid gland that makes the neck look swollen. This swelling will make the sufferer feel his throat full and have difficulty swallowing.
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Causes
The exact cause of Hashimoto’s disease is not yet clearly known. However, in most people with this disease, antibodies are found that inhibit tyrotropin receptors (hormones from the brain that stimulate the release of thyroid hormones). This causes ‘chaos’ in the thyroid gland, so the thyroid gland is no longer able to produce hormones.
Hashimoto’s disease is more common among women. The most age of the person is between the ages of 30–50 years.
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Risk Factors
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis risk factors include:
- Gender. Women are more at risk of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis than men.
- Age. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is more common in young adulthood, but can still occur at any age.
- Heredity. You are more at risk of having Hashimoto’s thyroiditis if in your family there are those who have Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or other autoimmune diseases.
- Have other autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
- Exposure to radiation. People who are often exposed to high radiation are more susceptible to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Diagnosis
At the initial examination, the doctor will conduct interviews and physical examinations. If there is suspected Hashimoto disease, as an initial laboratory examination, the doctor will advise the patient to perform a thyroid hormone test, in the form of a free TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) examination of the blood and T4. In Hashimoto patients, there will be increased TSH levels and low or normal free T4 levels.
After that, antibody examination will also be conducted, namely anti-TPO (anti thyroid peroxidase). Most Hashimoto sufferers have positive anti-TPO in their blood. To ensure diagnosis, a biopsy of the thyroid gland needs to be performed. The results of Hashimoto’s disease biopsy will show the number of lymphocyte cells in the thyroid gland.
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Treatment
If the patient is deficient in thyroxine hormone, the doctor will administer synthetic thyroid hormones. One of its types is levothyroxine. Levothyroxine is useful for treating symptoms of hypothyroidism.
The dosage and length of use of levothyroxine will be adjusted to thyroid hormone levels and the patient’s condition. Dose adjustment will be done by checking TSH levels approximately 1-2 months after therapy.
Lifestyle changes also need to be made as there are some foods and medications that can inhibit the absorption of levothyroxine. Some types of foods, medicines, and supplements that need to be considered are:
- Foods containing soybeans or high in fiber
- Iron supplements
- Calcium supplements
- Cholesterol-lowering drugs, such as cholestyramine
- Aluminum hydroxide that is usually contained in antacids
- Peptic ulcer drugs, such as sucralfate.
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Last Updated on May 23, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team