What are Antibodies: Properties, Functions, Structure, and How It Work – Discussing antibodies are not far from the human immune system. The human immune system (immunity) is regulated by the body’s ability in producing antibodies in the fight against antigens. Antibodies can be found in other areas of the blood or glands of the vertebrate body. It is also used by the immune system in identifying and neutralizing foreign bodies such as bacteria and viruses.
What are Antibodies?
Antibodies are a type of small protein that circulates in the bloodstream, and are included as part of the immune system. Antibodies have an important function in the body as a bulwark against various causes of disease.
Antibodies are made by white blood cells in response to help the body fight bacteria, viruses, and toxins, as well as keep the body from various diseases and infections. Antibodies are also produced by certain organs, such as the spleen. The antibodies work specifically by attaching to antigens, i.e. Foreign bodies in the body that are suspected of being a threat by the body’s defense system.
These antibodies have characteristic properties, including:
- Produced in the Reticuloendrothelial System, abbreviated with RES, such as bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver as well as others suitable for the site of white blood cell formation.
- It has properties not resistant to sunlight (thermolabile). Therefore, the frozen antibody should be stored in the refrigerator and also not exposed to sunlight directly.
- It can be reacted with the antigen specifically, like a key with a padlock.
- It can dissolve in the blood (plasma cells)
- Composed of a substance attached to gamma globulin.
In addition to the above properties, there are also some antibody properties when assessed from the workings of each type of antibodies, antibody properties are as follows:
Antibodies that have precipitin properties will work by depositing foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and others.
Antibodies that have lysine properties will work by carrying out the destruction of incoming foreign substances.
The nature of opsonin is found in antibodies, meaning that they can stimulate leukocyte attacks on incoming antigens.
Agglutinin is an antibody trait that works by decaying antigens, agglutinogens, as well as other foreign substances.
What are Antibodies Function?
The functions of antibodies are as follows:
Antibodies have the ability to recognize and \attach to \antigens that can cause disease in the body. In recognizing and attaching to antigens, antibodies always behave as markers, and will then send signals to other white blood cells to attack the foreign substance.
Basic Structure of Antibodies
The basic structure of antibodies is a protein molecule that shape is the letter Y which has two heavy polypeptide chains and two chains of mild polypeptides. Each antibody has an upper chain that function is to bind from antigens.
With these chains, antibodies can bind themselves to the body’s antigens. While the lower chain of antibody functions to determine how antibodies can be related to antigens. This chain makes antibodies able to regulate and stimulate the proper immune response.
How antibodies work
In this case the way antibodies work in fighting antigens “something that can cause disease” among others by:
Antibodies neutralize toxins produced by “antigen” bacteria and render them ineffective so that they can be secreted from the body through renal tubules.
Antibodies precipitate antigen molecules by making them form insoluble clots. In such a form, antigens can be ingested by phagocyte cells, digested and made harmless.
Antibodies are attached to “antigen” micro organization cells as opsonins so that they can phagocytes and destroyed by neutrophils.
Complement protein activity
The antibodies work together with complementary proteins in plasma, attached to the walls of antigen cells and identifying them for T cells.
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