What Is The Function of An Enzyme? In this article, we will discuss about Definition, Purposes, Functions, and Work of enzyme.
Enzymes are one of the types of protein groups required by all living things.
Before discussing What Is The Function of An Enzyme. First, we will discuss the definition of enzymes:
- Enzymes are organic compounds or protein catalysts produced by cells and act as catalysts called biocatalysis.
- Enzymes are protein substances that are temporarily bound to one or more reacting substance. Thus the enzyme lowers the energy of activity in cells or organs in living beings so that the reaction takes place quickly.
- Chemically the enzyme consists of two parts (complete enzymes / holoenzymes), namely the protein part (apoenzyme) and the non-protein part (prosthetic group) produced in the cells of living beings.
The Purpose of Enzymes In the Body
Enzymes convert the nutrients we digest into vital parts for the regeneration of blood, nerves, organs and tissues.
Of the three enzyme groups, two are digestive enzymes and one is considered a metabolic enzyme. The structure of metabolic enzymes is a basic element of nutrition that the body uses to perform most of its vital functions.
Metabolic enzymes are responsible for the formation and development of hormones, this enzyme is also the only enzyme that helps the body maintain its health condition.
This enzyme also increases the body’s endurance in fighting diseases as well as maintaining the vitality of the body as it ages. The other two groups of enzymes are digestive enzymes.
Food enzymes begin the digestive process for the first time when pure digestive enzymes begin the process of breaking nutrients into small particles for use by all tissues and organs in the body.
At this point, metabolic enzymes become active in the process of drafting these nutrients inside nerves, organs, tissues and blood.
What Is The Function of An Enzyme?
One of the functions of enzymes is to help accelerate each chemical reaction of cells in the body.
In the absence of enzymes, chemical reactions in our body will run slowly.
Enzymes work very selectively, specifically, and efficiently.
Selective, meaning only certain types of substances can be worked on. Specifically, it means that only certain types of reactions are catalysts. Efficient, which means it can lower activation energy.
Enzyme activity is strongly influenced by a variety of factors. Some of these are temperature, pH, moisture content, a number of enzymes, number of substrates, and the presence of inhibitors.
- Temperature: Temperature is very influential in the work of enzymes because enzymes consist of proteins. The higher the temperature, the faster the chemical reaction. However, the enzyme will denature if the temperature is too high. Denatured enzymes mean that enzymes undergo changes in molecular makeup so that enzymes become inactive.
- pH: The enzyme requires a specific pH to carry out its activity. Each enzyme requires a different pH. There are enzymes that can work optimally at high pH, and there are also enzymes that can work optimally at low pH.
- Water Content: Enzyme work is strongly influenced by water content. Low water content can cause enzymes to be inactive. For example, dried plant seeds cannot germinate. The lack of germination indicates that the enzyme becomes inactive. Inactivity of enzymes due to low water content in seeds. Seeds will germinate if immersion is held so that the water content is sufficient to reactivate the enzyme.
- Enzyme Concentration: The growing concentration of enzymes, will accelerate chemical reactions. If the concentration of enzymes with substrates of substances to be altered by enzymes is already balanced, the speed of chemical reactions will be relatively constant.
- Number of Substrates: To some degree, the number of substrates will affect the speed of chemical reactions. If the number of substrates and enzymes is already balanced, the speed of chemical reactions will be relatively constant.
- Inhibitors: The presence of inhibitors (substances that may inhibit the work of enzymes) can interfere with the work of enzymes. For example, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFF) compounds can inhibit the work of acetylcholinesterase enzymes found in the transmission of nerve impulses.
Another function is to control the process of DNA transcription (the process of making RNA, especially mRNA by copying a portion of DNA files, as an important part of the series of cell division processes).
How Enzymes Work
Enzymes work to catalyst reactions by increasing the reaction speed. Increasing the speed of this reaction is done by lowering the energy (energy needed for the reaction). Decreased energy activation is carried out by forming complexes and substrates.
Here is how an enzyme works:
SUBSTRATE + ENZYME —–> (ENZYME + PRODUCT) – SUBSTRATE.
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