What Are Cells?
What Are Cells?

What Are Cells: Definition, Hystory, and 2 Types

What Are Cells: Definition, Hystory, and Types – The body of the living creature consists of an organ system, whereby the organ system is composed of organs, organs formed by tissues, and tissues formed from cells. Basically every living creature has a cell that is the basic constituent of the body of living beings. The cell can organize and process all information, so that it can carry out the life function of living creatures.

What are cells?

General Definition

The word cell comes from the Greek language, which is “Cellula” or “cella” meaning empty space.

Cells are the smallest units of living beings structurally and functionally and it can no longer be divided into smaller parts. Structurally, it means a cell is the smallest unit of living creature, while functionally means the cell has the ability to be able to perform various processes of life such as reshuffle, synthesis, respiration, etc.

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The understanding of cells is a collection of materials that can live and become a constituent unit of living beings. Cells are capable of doing all sorts of activities in life and most of them can react to chemistry in order to sustain the life in the cells.

Living creatures are mostly composed of single cells known as unicellular such as bacteria and amoeba. Other living creatures also include plants, animals, and humans are multicellular organisms that have many types of cells specialize in different but interconnected functions.

For example, for bacteria, the body derives from the cell division of its parent bacteria, while the mice are derived from their first fertilized egg-based cleavage.

Cell definition according to experts

Some scientists formulate cell definitions with different understandings.

  1. Mathias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann state that the cell is a structural unit of life.
  2. Max Schultze and Thomas Huxley state that the cell is a functional unit of life.
  3. Rudolf Virchow stated that the cell is derived from the cell which is the unity of growth.
  4. Johannes Purkinje began to introduce the term protoplasm which is the constituent fluid in the cell.

What Are Cells History?

The cell was first observed and identified by a British physicist named Robert Hook in 1665. Later, two German scientists – Schwann and Schleiden raised the basic principle of a new cell in 1893. The cell theory consists of the following three principles:

  1. All living beings are composed of one or more cells
  2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function of living creatures
  3. Other cells derive from a pre-existing cell duplication (replication) process.

Cell Types Based on Structure

The cells have three main structures, namely cell membranes, cytoplasm, and cell organelles.

Based on its structure, cells are differentiated into prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. The following is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Prokaryotic CellEukaryotic Cells
  1. Has no core membrane (genetic material spread on the cytoplasm of the cell)
  2. Does not have a Endomembran system (Organel has no membrane)
  3. Only in the Kingdom of Archaebacreria and Eubacteria.

Example: Escherichia coli, Cyanobacteria

  1. Has a core membrane (genetic material is at the cell core)
  2. Has the endomembrane system (Organelle membrane)
  3. Present in the Kingdom of Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

Difference between Animal & Plant Cells

There are two types of cells that are included in eukaryotic cells, i.e. Animal and plant cells. Nevertheless, each of these cells has a distinction, namely:

Plant CellsAnimal Cells
  1. It has cell walls, plastids, and Vacuoles
  2. It has a fixed shape
  3. Lacks centrosomes and centrioles
  4. It has no flagella
  1. It does not have cell walls and plastids
  2. It has vacuoles but size is not as large as on plant cell vacuoles
  3. It doesn’t have a fixed shape
  4. It has 2 centrioles inside Sentrosol
  5. It has a flagellum

Thank you very much for reading What Are Cells: Definition, Hystory, and Types, hopefully useful.

Last Updated on August 6, 2020 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team