Ventricular Septal Defect Definition
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a heart defect characterized by a gap or hole between the two chambers of the heart. Under normal conditions, there should be no holes or gaps between the two chambers of the heart.
Ventricular septal defect is one type of congenital heart disease. This condition can occur starting at 8 weeks of pregnancy, which is when the formation of the fetal heart takes place in the womb.
At the beginning of the formation of the heart, the left and right chambers of the heart are still fused. As the fetus grows in the womb, the dividing wall (septum) between the two chambers will form. However, some conditions cause the walls not to form perfectly and leave a hole.
Ventricular septal defects cause the left chamber of the heart to work harder to cause valve disorders and heart failure.
Ventricular Septal Defect Causes
Until now, the exact cause of ventricular septal defects is not yet known. However, by the time a baby is born, the dividing wall between the left and right chambers of the heart is generally already formed. But in the case of this disorder, the wall has not closed perfectly and still forms a hole.
It is thought that several factors affect the incidence of ventricular septal defects, such as maternal factors (e.g. There is diabetes disorder in the mother) and genetic disorders (the presence of a history of abnormalities in the heart or non-heart in parents or siblings).
Ventricular septal defect risk factors
Leaking of the heart chambers can run in families and sometimes occurs along with other genetic diseases such as Down syndrome. If you already have a child with a heart defect, the geneticist will analyze the magnitude of the risk of developing this disease.
Ventricular Septal Defect Symptoms
In general, symptoms of ventricular septal defects include:
- Lack of appetite, thus inhibiting the growth and development of children
- Irregular and fast breathing
- Easily tired
Other characteristics or symptoms that may arise from ventricular septal defects are:
- Difficulty breathing
- Pale skin tone
- Frequent respiratory infections
- Bluish skin, especially around the lips and nails
- Sweating while breastfeeding
Signs and symptoms of this ventricular septal defect may go undetected at birth. If the defect is small, symptoms may not appear until later in childhood. Signs and symptoms vary, based on the size of the hole in the heart and other related heart abnormalities.
Ventricular septal defect Complications
A small ventricular septal defect may not cause problems. Moderate or large defects can cause a variety of disabilities, from mild to life-threatening.
The following are a variety of complications that may occur, including:
A hard-working heart and lungs having too much blood pumped to it can lead to failure of heart function.
Increased blood flow to the lungs due to this condition causes high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries (pulmonary hypertension). This complication can lead to a reversal of blood flow through the hole (Eisenmenger syndrome).
Ventricular Septal Defect Diagnosis
At a physical examination, your doctor may hear a noise in the heart, called a heart murmur. If your doctor hears a heart sound, your doctor may ask for one or more tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:
- An echocardiogram can show problems with the structure of the heart, show how big the hole is, and show how much blood leaks are flowing through the hole.
- Pulse oximeter can measure oxygen levels in the blood by placing a sensor at the patient’s fingertips.
- Chest X-ray, it can see the condition of the heart and lungs.
- Cardiac catheterization.