The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug for diabetes, Ozempic (semaglutide). This drug is intended for people with type 2 Diabetes.
Want to know more about Ozempic Side Effects? Come on, read the following article.
What is Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism caused by abnormalities in insulin secretion, insulin work and both (WHO, 2006).
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What is the cause of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?
Impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance are the factors that cause the development of type 2 DM. Impaired insulin secretion is a decrease in the response of insulin production to the presence of glucose or better known as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
If it is in an old or chronic condition, this can cause damage to the cells of the pancreas β so that glucose in the blood will be uncontrolled. Meanwhile, insulin resistance is a condition where insulin in the body does not provide a proportional action to its concentration in the blood.
This can be caused by several factors such as genetics and environment (hyperglycemia, free fatty acids, and inflammation). This insulin resistance will cause the body to respond to high blood glucose by producing insulin continuously.
However, this insulin does not provide the action, so that blood glucose will remain high. In the long term/ chronic, the cells β pancreas will experience disturbances due to producing insulin continuously. Cell β pancreas damage progressively is irreversible and causes uncontrolled blood glucose (Kaku, 2010).
Ozempic, A new solution for sufferers of Type 2 Diabetes
Ozempic is a modified glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue used to treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Ozempic is a preparation that is given subcutaneously once a week using an Ozempic Pen (Dhillon, 2018).
Ozempic affects glucose control through several mechanisms such as increased insulin secretion, slowing gastric emptying, and reduction of postprandial glucagon and food intake.
When food enters, GLP-1 will stimulate insulin synthesis by stimulating pancreatic islets, also slowing down gastric emptying, inhibiting the release of glucagon after eating and reducing food intake in people with Type 2 DM so that blood sugar levels in the body tend to be more stable.
In addition, Ozempic can reduce weight due to loss of fat mass and protect atherosclerosis sufferers independently through anti-inflammatory effects (Novo Nordisk, 2017).
The initial dose of Ozempic begins with 0.25 mg once a week and after 4 weeks of use the dose should be increased to 0.5 mg once a week (Novo Nordisk, 2017).
Ozempic has a bioavailability maximization of 89%. The maximum concentration of the drug can be reached 1-3 days after the administration of the drug and a stable condition can be achieved after 4-5 weeks of use of the drug. Ozempic 99% will bind to plasma albumin and have a clearance of 0.05 L / hour with an elimination half-life of 1 week (Novo Nordisk, 2017).
Ozempic Side Effects
Ozempic Side Effects are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and constipation. The use of Ozempic needs special attention in patients who have suffered from thyroid disorders because in clinical trials, it is known that there is hyperplasia of thyroid medulla cells (Dhillon, 2018).
Advantages of Ozempic from Other GLP-1 Analogues
When compared to other GLP-1 analog drugs, Ozempic is more effective in lowering and maintaining blood glucose levels because this drug acts on all GLP-1 receptors in the body. In addition, in clinical trials, it is known that Ozempic can lower and maintain HbA1c levels the better and more stable.
The weight loss effect of Ozempic can be utilized for people with type 2 DM with obesity. Ozempic also has other benefits, which are safe for consumption for patients who have a history of heart disease and stroke.
In clinical trials, it was proven that Ozempic only had a 26% probability of mortality in people with DM complications of heart disease (Lingvay et al., 2016).
- Barnett, A. 2012. Type 2 Diabtes 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Dhillon, S. 2018. Semaglutide: First Global Approval. Drugs. 78(2) : 275-284
- European Medicines Agency. 2017. Ozempic (Semaglutide): Opinion. Tersedia secara online di: https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/medicines/human/EPAR/Ozempic [Accessed on: June 5, 2022]
- Kaku, K. 2010. Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and Its Treatment Policy. JMAJ, 53(1):41-46.
- Lee, Y. S., & Jun, H. S. 2014. Anti-diabetic actions of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 on Pancreatic beta-cells. Metabolism. 63(1): 9-19.
- Lingvay et al. 2016. Efficacy and safety of semaglutide once-weekly vs placebo as add-on to basal insulin alone or in combination with metformin in subjects with type 2 diabetes (SUSTAIN 5). EASD Virtual Meeting. Available online at https://www.easd.org/virtualmeeting/home.html#!resources/efficacy-and-safety-of-semaglutide-once-weekly-vs-placebo-as-add-on-to-basal-insulin-alone-or-in-combination-with-metformin-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-sustain-5 [Accessed on: June 5, 2022].
- Novo Nordisk. 2017. Ozempic (Semaglutide) Injection, For Subcutaneous Use: US Prescribing Information. Available online at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/209637lbl.pdf [Accessed on: June 5, 2022].
- WHO. 2006. Diabetes Mellitus: Report of a WHO Study Grup. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Last Updated on June 5, 2022 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team