Type 2 Diabetes is the condition in which the blood sugar levels exceed the normal value. The high levels of blood sugar because the body does not use the insulin hormone normally. The hormone insulin itself is a hormone that helps sugar (glucose) get into the body’s cells to be converted into energy.
More Type 2 Diabetes occurs in older persons and elderly people. However, now type 2 diabetes also starts a lot found in children and adolescents.
Type 2 Diabetes Causes
Type two Diabetes can be caused by many factors, such as:
- Genetic disorders
- Metabolic diseases such as
- High blood pressure (≥ 140/90 in older persons)
- Large waist circumference (≥ 90 cm in men and ≥ 80 cm in females)
- Low HDL cholesterol levels (≤ 40 mg/dL)
- High triglyceride levels (≥ 250 mg/dL)
- Liver abnormalities where the liver produces continuous glucose
- Damage to pancreatic beta cells, i.e. Insulin-generating cells.
Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors
Some of the risk factors of type 2 diabetes include:
- Have excessive weight or obesity.
- High belly fat distribution.
- Lifestyle is inactive and rarely activity or exercising.
- History of type 2 diabetes in the family.
- Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian-Americans, have a higher number of sufferers compared to white races.
- The age is over 45 years old, although it is not possible to close the possibility of under age 45 years.
- Prediabetic conditions, i.e. When blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
- History of diabetes while pregnant.
- Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, which are characterized by irregular menstruation, excessive hair growth, and obesity.
Beginning signs of type 2 diabetes
Increased urination is a common beginning signs of type 2 diabetes that occurs as a direct result of excess blood sugar. When glucose is not transferred properly to the cells of the body, the kidneys work extra hard to throw it into the urine, while the properties of sugar are pulling liquids (hydrophilic) so that much of the fluid comes out causing frequent urination.
Excessive thirst is another symptom of type 2 diabetes that usually accompanies frequent urination. When the body loses a large amount of fluid through urine continuously, mild dehydration is a common side effect.
In diabetics, this pattern often causes thirst that is difficult to resist even though there is an enormous amount of liquid they drink. Naturally, the more people drink, the more often they urinate, which is why these two symptoms tend to occur simultaneously.
Increased hunger (Polyphagia)
Increased hunger is one of the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2. Your body cells do not get enough glucose, so you then become easily hungry.
Dry mouth is one symptom of diabetes. You’ll have moisture problems in your mouth. Dry mouth can be a growing place of bacteria, as well as causing dental and oral problems.
Unexplained weight gain and loss
It is one of the beginning signs of type 2 diabetes in older persons. Since insulin cannot transport glucose into the cell, the body reacts as if the body is in a hungry state and begins to use protein from the muscles.
Easy to get tired
Many diabetics often feel tired and lethargic at certain times. Because, blood sugar levels are high or low. In some cases, fatigue is a result of the imbalance rate of glucose levels and the amount or effectiveness of insulin in a person.
Therefore, it would be better if the handling was done immediately. In addition to relieving the symptoms that arise, good treatment can also prevent type 2 diabetes and its complications, such as:
- Heart disease
- Skin disorders
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Hearing Loss
Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus type 2
Diagnosis of diabetes is enforced by checking blood sugar levels. This examination is performed twice with different times. However, for people who have a clear diabetes symptom, the examination is quite done once. Some routine checks are:
HbA1C level: To assess the average blood glucose levels over the past two to three months. The normal value is ≤ 6.5%
Random Blood glucose levels
Random Blood glucose levels: measured without fasting first. Expressed diabetes if the value of ≥ 200 mg/dL accompanied by clear symptoms of diabetes.
Fasting blood sugar level
Fasting blood sugar level: measured after fasting for 8 hours. The normal value is ≤ 126 mg/dL
Oral glucose tolerance test
Oral glucose tolerance test: measured two hours after drinking a sugar solution. The normal value is ≤ 140 mg/dL.