Integumentary system
Integumentary System (Illustration / / CC BY-SA (

Integumentary System: Definition, 5 Functions, and Organs

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The Integumentary System is a process of cell formation with continuous exchange or change as part of the human cell component that involves the role of living beings for human life.

Integumentary System Definition

The integument system is an organ system that distinguishes with relationships that inform about animals or humans from the environment.

In this case also the Integumen System is surrounded by a system called the organ system found in humans consisting of its skin and accessories.

That will move by stimulating on internal changes and the external environment depending on its function having the function to cover organs or tissues in humans from the outside.

This human integument system consists of skin, nails, hair, glands and mammary glands of repairing itself and has mechanisms on defenses of the body.

Or as a barrier between the environment and human organs to prevent excessive fluid loss that will enter environments such as bacteria and chemicals and UV radiation.

The Integument system will move against mechanical loads such as friction and vibrations that can detect physical changes in the outside environment, with unpleasant and avoidable stimuli from internal organs as vital functions in the body.

Integumentary System Function

The functions of the integument system include:

  • As a protection from dryness, invasion of microorganisms, ultraviolet light, and mechanical, chemical, or temperature
  • As the recipient of sensations in the form of touch, pressure, pain and temperature
  • As a temperature control that is to lower heat loss when the temperature is cold and increase heat loss when the temperature is hot
  • As a metabolic function that is to store energy through fat reserves; vitamin D synthesis
  • As a function of excretion is to secrete sweat, oil and salt.

Integumentary System Organs

Here are some examples of integumentary systems, including:


Integumentary system organ
Integumentary System: Definition, 5 Functions, and Organs 2

Structurally, the skin is divided into 3 main layers, namely:


This epidermis layer is divided into:

  • Basal layer (stratum germinativum) which is the bottom layer of the epidermis, there is melanocytes i.e. Dendritic cells that form melanin
  • Malpighian layer (stratum spinosum), this is the thickest layer
  • Granular layer (stratum granulosum), this layer has granules)
  • Horn layer (stratum corneum), this layer consists of 20 to 25 layers of horn cells without a nucleus.


It is the bottom layer of the epidermis and consists of connective tissue.

Subcutaneous or hypodermic tissue

This is the deepest layer containing lipocyte cells that produce a lot of fat. It consists of adipose tissue as a cushion between the skin and internal structures such as muscles and bones.

Read also:
Things that can damage the skin


Hair is found all over the skin except the soles of the feet and the dorsal part of the distal phalanges of the fingers, feet, pe**nis, labia minora and lips. There are 2 types of hair that are terminal hair that can be long and short, and vellus hair that is short, smooth and soft hair. Hair is composed of roots that are cells without keratin and stems consisting of keratin cells.

Read also:
How Long Does It Take For Hair To Grow?


On the dorsal surface of the distal end of the finger or toe, there is a hard and transparent keratin plate that grows from the root called the cuticle. The average nail growth is about 0.1 mm per day. The total update of fingernails is 170 days, while toenails are 12- 18 months.

Read also:
How To Cure Fungus On Toenails

Skin Glands

The skin consists of two glands namely the sebaceous and sudorifera gland. The Sebaceous gland serves to control the secretion of oil into the space between the hair follicles and the hair stem that will lubricate the hair so that it becomes smooth, supple and soft. Meanwhile, sweat glands (sudorifera) serve to secrete sweat when body temperature increases.


Scales are part of the animal’s intergumentary system, scales are the outer covering of the animal’s body. In general, scales mean a kind of layer of hard skin and strands, these scales are in fish, snakes or chicken legs and so on.

Last Updated on August 26, 2020 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team

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