In this article, we will discuss about HIV Life cycle and HIV Drug List
What is the HIV life cycle?
There are several steps in the HIV life cycle:
- Free Virus circulates in the bloodstream
- HIV Cleave to cells
- HIV penetrates cells and empties contents in cells
- HIV genetic code converted from an RNA form to DNA to help by the reverse transcriptase enzyme
- HIV DNA is combined with the DNA of cells with the help of integrase enzymes. With this complaint, the cell becomes infected with HIV.
- The time the infected cell doubled, the HIV DNA was activated, and made the raw material for the new virus
- All the ingredients needed to create a new virus are collected
- An immature Virus urges out of infected cells with a process called budding (bulge)
- Millions of immature viruses removed from infected cells
- New viruses become mature: Raw materials are cut by protease enzymes and assembled into a working virus
HIV Drug List
Although until now there is no cure for HIV, but there are types of drugs that can slow the development of viruses. This type of drug is called antiretroviral (ARV). ARV works by eliminating the elements that the HIV virus needs to multiply, and prevents the HIV virus from destroying CD4 cells. Some types of ARV medications, among others:
ARV Approved in the US
Each ARV type or group attacks HIV differently. Currently there are five drug classes approved in the US.
The first anti-HIV drug group is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or NRTI, also called Analog nucleoside. This group of drugs inhibits the fourth step above, namely the change of HIV genetic material from the RNA form into the form of DNA needed in the following steps.
NRTI drugs prevent the enzyme reverse transcriptase virus from copying RNA into DNA. Without DNA, HIV and AIDS cannot make copies of themselves or cannot multiply
The difference between HIV and AIDS
The drug in this group that is approved in the U.S. and still made is:
- 3TC (lamivudine)
- Abacavir (ABC)
- AZT (ZDV, zidovudine)
- d4T (stavudine)
- ddI (didanosine)
- Emtricitabine (FTC)
- Tenofovir (TDF; nucleotide analogues).
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or NNRTIs inhibit the same steps in the HIV life cycle, but in other ways. Five NNRTIs are approved in the US:
- Delavirdine (DLV)
- Efavirenz (EFV)
- Etravirine (ETV)
- Nevirapine (NVP)
- Rilpivirine (RPV).
Protease inhibitors (PI) inhibit the tenth step, with new virus material cut out accordingly to make a new virus.
The Integrase inhibitor drug is usually administered first since someone diagnosed contracting HIV. This drug is administered because it is believed to be quite potent preventing the viral load of HIV increases with the risk of slight side effects.
Nine PIs are approved and are still being made in the US:
- Atazanavir (ATV)
- Darunavir (DRV)
- Fosamprenavir (FPV)
- Indinavir (IDV)
- Lopinavir (LPV)
- Nelfinavir (NFV)
- Ritonavir (RTV)
- Saquinavir (SQV)
- Tipranavir (TPV).
Entry inhibitors prevent the binding and introduction of HIV in cells by blocking the second step of its life cycle. Two of these drugs are already approved in the US:
- Enfuvirtide (T-20)
- Maraviroc (MVC).
Integrase inhibitors (INI). These drugs prevent the integration of the HIV genetic code with the cell genetic code by blocking the fifth step of its life cycle. These three drugs are already available:
- Dolutegravir (DTG)
- Elvitegravir (EGV)
- Raltegravir (RGV)
However, elvitegravir is only approved as an ingredient in Stribild, a combination pill with cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir.
While taking antiretroviral drugs, the doctor will monitor the number of viruses and CD4 cells to assess the patient’s response to treatment. Count CD4 cells will be performed every 3-6 months. While HIV RNA examination has been conducted since the beginning of treatment, continued every 3-4 months during the period of treatment.
Thank you very much for reading In this article, we will discuss about HIV Drug List, hopefully useful.