Diabetes Insipidus is a fairly rare condition, with symptoms always feeling thirsty and at the same time often urinating in very much. If very severe, the sufferer can excrete urine as much as 20 liters a day.
Diabetes Insipidus is different from diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Mellitus is a long-term disease characterized by blood sugar levels above normal. Diabetes Insipidus, on the other hand is not associated with blood sugar levels.
Causes of Diabetes Insipidus
The occurrence of diabetes insipidus due to disorders of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) that regulates the amount of fluid in the body. This hormone is produced the hypothalamus, which is a special tissue in the brain. This hormone is stored by the pituitary gland after it is produced by the hypothalamus.
The pituitary gland will secrete this antidiuretic hormone when the moisture content in the body is too low. “Antidiuretic” means the opposite of “diuresis”. “Diuresis”‘ means production of urine. This antidiuretic hormone helps retain water in the body by reducing the amount of fluid wasted through the kidneys in the form of urine.
The cause of diabetes insipidus is a reduced production of antidiuretic hormones or when the kidneys are no longer responding as usual to antidiuretic hormones. As a result, the kidneys excrete too much fluid and can not produce intense urine.
People who experience this condition will always feel thirsty and drink more because it seeks to compensate for the many lost fluids.
Based on the cause, diabetes insipidus is divided into:
The central Diabetes insipidus
The central Diabetes insipidus, which is a condition caused due to damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, causing storage and production disorders of ADH. These damages can occur due to surgery, tumors, meningitis, genetic disorders, or head trauma.
Diabetes Insipidus Nephrogenic
Diabetes Insipidus Nephrogenic, which is the condition caused by abnormalities in the kidney tubule (the place where water is removed and retained), due to genetic disorders, chronic kidney disease, or the consumption of certain medications.
Gestational Diabetes insipidus
Gestational Diabetes insipidus, which is a condition that occurs during pregnancy and it is temporary.
Primary polydipsia, or also known as diabetic-induced or psychogenic diabetes insipidus, is a condition that causes the production of large amounts of watery urine due to consuming a lot of fluids. Primary Polydipsia can also be caused by deterioration of the thirst setting mechanism in the hypothalamus.
This condition is also often associated with mental conditions, such as schizophrenia.
Risk Factors for Diabetes Insipidus
Factors that can increase the risk of occurrence of diabetes insipidus are male and genetic.
What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus?
There are various symptoms that can arise when a person is affected by this disease. One is more frequent urination and often feels thirsty. Why so?
People with diabetes insipidus may be urinating too often. The kidneys usually filter about 120-150 liters of blood to produce 1-2 liters of urine each day.
Meanwhile, patients with this disease can produce a daily urine of 3-20 liters. This condition causes them to urinate more frequently, which is about 3-4 times per hour. In addition, the urine they secrete is generally more dilute, look faded, and odorless.
Easy to feel thirsty
If lately you often feel thirsty quickly, may need to be careful. The reason, easy and often felt thirsty can be a sign and symptom of diabetes insipidus.
This condition can occur as a result of you more secrete urine. The more urine is excreted, the more fluid intake the body needs. As a result, people with this condition can constantly feel thirsty, despite drinking plenty of water.
Other signs and symptoms
In addition to these two symptoms above, there are some other signs of diabetes insipidus similar to kidney disease, such as:
- Weak, lethargic, and not energetic,
- Lack of sleep due to frequent waking up at night to urinate,
- Dry skin,
- The difficulty of concentrating,
- Often bedwetting.
Thank you very much for reading Diabetes Insipidus: The Causes, Risk factors, and Symptoms, hopefully useful.