Aphasia is a communication disorder caused by damage to the brain. These disorders can affect speech and writing skills, as well as the ability to understand words while reading or listening.
Generally aphasia sufferers will be mistaken in choosing and arranging words into a correct sentence. However, this condition does not affect the level of intelligence and memory of the sufferer.
Aphasia can occur suddenly after a sufferer has a stroke or head injury. However, aphasia can also occur gradually if it is caused by a brain tumor or dementia.
Aphasia is not a disease, but rather a symptom that marks the presence of damage in the part of the brain that regulates language and communication.
One of the most common causes of brain damage triggering aphasia is stroke. When having a stroke, the absence of blood flow to the brain causes the death of brain cells or damage in the part of the brain that serves to process language. Approximately 25–40% of stroke patients will suffer from aphasia.
Brain damage from head injuries, brain tumors, or encephalitis can also cause aphasia. In these cases, usually aphasia will be accompanied by other disorders, such as impaired memory and impaired consciousness.
In addition, aphasia can occur due to diseases that cause decreased function of brain cells, such as dementia and Parkinson’s disease. In this condition, aphasia will develop gradually along with the development of the disease.
There are several types of aphasia with different symptoms, namely:
Global aphasia is the most severe type of aphasia. A person with global aphasia is only able to produce a few words that can be understood and cannot or only slightly understand when spoken to. These aphasia sufferers are neither able to read nor write.
Broca aphasia (non-fluent aphasia)
In this form of aphasia, speech is very limited and usually during the delivery of the language of the sufferer using short words (usually less than four words).
Vocabulary in Broca aphasia sufferers is very limited. Sufferers can generally understand the words presented to him quite well and are able to read, but are limited in writing.
Mixed non-fluent aphasia
In this aphasia, sufferers have difficulty saying words and a few words are spoken, similar to the severe state of Broca aphasia.
The difference is, the sufferer has difficulty understanding the words presented to him. Reading and writing skills are also very limited, similar to elementary school children.
In this aphasia, the production of words does not experience problems while the ability to understand the spoken word is impaired. As a result, sufferers generally speak using many words, creating long sentences, and often have no meaning.
A person with this aphasia will have difficulty finding the words necessary to convey his or her meaning, often this word is a noun or adjective.
If spoken, the sufferer will use too many words, even if correct in grammar. Understanding words are generally not problematic.
Progressive primary aphasia
Progressive primary aphasia is a neurological syndrome in which language ability is slowly and progressively impaired. This condition is caused by neurodegenerative problems, for example, due to Alzheimer’s disease.
In this case, there is damage to brain tissue that serves for language ability. Although language problems begin, at an advanced stage there can be other problems, such as memory loss.
Other types include different types of aphasia that do not fully fall into the categories described above. There can be a combination of several types of aphasia.
To determine the diagnosis of aphasia a thorough evaluation is required by the doctor. The examination can be done to assess the ability to understand words, questions, stories; mention words and sentences; writing and reading; convey ideas in other ways if there is difficulty speaking (e.g. With gestures, and so on).
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Last Updated on December 12, 2020 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team