Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Causes, Symptoms, How To Control It + Risk Factors, and Transmission | MDR TB or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a type of tuberculosis that is immune to the 2 most powerful antituberculosis drugs, namely isoniazid and rifampicin.

Transmission of tuberculosis between people and improper treatment can trigger tuberculosis-causing bacteria to develop their resistance to antituberculosis drugs given.

However, this does not mean that this condition cannot be treated at all. Through proper treatment, people with MDR TB can recover from the disease they suffer from.

Causes of multidrug resistant tuberculosis

There are various factors that can cause immunity or germ resistance to tuberculosis drugs or MDR TB, including:

  • TB sufferers do not complete treatment until it is completed
  • Wrong drug administration, both the type of drug, dosage, and length of TB treatment
  • Poor drug quality
  • Lack of availability of TB drugs

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis is also more at risk in someone who has previously been exposed to TB, a weakened immune system, contact with people with MDR TB, and comes from an area with a high case of drug-resistant TB.

Risk factors for multidrug resistant tuberculosis

This disease can affect anyone, but usually occurs in people who:

  • Do not take TB medication regularly or as advised by health workers
  • Recurrent TB pain and have a history of getting previous TB treatment
  • Coming from a region that has a high burden of drug-resistant Tuberculosis
  • Close contact with someone who has it.

Multidrug resistant tuberculosis symptoms

The most obvious signs and symptoms of MDR are certainly the health condition of TB patients who do not improve and can even get worse, even though they have undergone antituberculosis treatment.

Another possibility that you experience drug-resistant tuberculosis is when TB disease recurs some time after you don’t feel the typical TB symptoms.

Symptoms of MDR tuberculosis are more or less the same as tuberculosis patients in general are:

  • Coughing never heals
  • Easily tired and limp body
  • Bloody cough
  • No appetite
  • Have a mild fever
  • Weight loss drastically
  • Shortness of breath and pain in the chest
  • Sweating at night.

Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis transmission

Just like the transmission of TB germs that are not drug-resistant in general. People who are infected germs that can develop into “TB pain” and will experience “MDR TB pain” because what is in the patient’s body is an MDR TB germ. Patients can transmit drug-resistant TB germs to the surrounding community.

How is TB resistance to antibiotics?

  • Not completing treatment
  • The dose of the drug given is not appropriate
  • Length of treatment
  • Drug quality
  • Drug supply constraints
  • Wrong way to take medicine

How to control multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

A person is suspected of suffering from drug-resistant TB if they have the following conditions:

  • TB sufferers fail treatment
  • TB germs are still positive after 3 months of treatment
  • TB sufferers who return for treatment after neglecting treatment (loss to follow-up)
  • TB sufferers with HIV who show no response to TB treatment

If you find the above conditions, you need to immediately see a doctor to get a follow-up examination. After the doctor performs an examination and you are declared to have MDR TB, you need to start treatment immediately. The duration of treatment can range from 19-24 months.

But in certain conditions, such as in uncomplicated MDR TB or in MDR TB who have not received second-line treatment, WHO recommends a short-term treatment program, which is 9-12 months.

TB symptoms will generally improve within a few months after treatment. However, people with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis must always undergo rigorous evaluation and monitoring during the recovery period and undergo treatment to the fullest.

Medical personnel must also follow all prescribed TB treatment steps, as well as ensure that suspected TB sufferers are immediately diagnosed and get the correct treatment guidance.

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Last Updated on May 4, 2022 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team