Intestinal Infection
Intestinal Infection

Intestinal Infection: Types, 3 Causes, Symptoms, and Antibiotic treatment

Intestinal infections or enterocolitis are inflammation that can occur in the small intestine and the colon. Diarrhea and vomiting are common symptoms of sufferers of this condition. A person who is hospitalized, often using a public swimming pool, or has a weak immune system at high risk of contracting organisms causing intestinal infections.

Types of intestinal infections

Overall, there are several types of intestinal infections:

Pseudomembranous colitis

Pseudomembranous colitis, which is a severe inflammation that occurs in the colon. Inflammation occurs due to an increase in the Clostridium difficile bacteria in large quantities. Normally, this bacterium is present in the colon. However, if there is an uncontrollable increase in the amount of bacteria, it can trigger inflammation.

Necrotizing enterocolitis

Necrotizing enterocolitis, which is the formation of dead tissues (necrosis) in the intestines. This condition often occurs in premature babies. Another thing to know from this intestinal infection is the possibility of complications in sufferers of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) – such as disorders of the liver and intestines.

Antibiotic-associated Enterocolitis

Antibiotic-associated Enterocolitis, which is an intestinal infection that occurs due to antibiotic consumption, causing many dead bacteria. At that time, Clostridium difficile bacteria easily attacked and infected.

Hemorrhagic Enterocolitis

Hemorrhagic Enterocolitis, which is a bowel infection due to the Escherichia coli bacteria. This intestinal infection can lead to harmful complications such as kidney failure, nerve damage, and stroke.

Causes of intestinal infections

Intestinal infections can be caused by different organisms, such as:

Bacteria.

Intestinal Infection Causes

Examples include E. Coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter. These bacteria can spread through food, such as eggs or meat.

Parasites.

Examples are Entamoeba histolytica and Balantidium. The transmission of parasites generally occurs through contaminated water, such as when swimming.

Virus.

Cytomegalovirus.

This Virus affects people who have weakened immune systems, such as people with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients who taking immunosuppressive drugs.

Norovirus:

This virus group causes gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines) with the main symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), a Disease Control and Prevention agency in the United States, stated that one could be exposed to norovirus infections about five times in its life.

Rotavirus:

Often infects babies and children and causes more than half a million infant deaths annually. The transmission is very easy, through food or drink contaminated with the patient’s stool.

A person has a high risk of contracting organisms causing intestinal infections when:

  • Not maintain cleanliness.
  • Has a weak immune system.
  • In the middle of being hospitalized.
  • Often use public facilities, such as a swimming pool.

Signs and symptoms of intestinal infection

Common symptoms of intestinal infections are:

Diarrhea

Usually diarrhea caused by viral infections only lasts in a short time and its nature is watery diarrhea (liquid bowel movements). Meanwhile, bacterial infections can sometimes cause bloody or dysentery diarrhea.

Read also: The Causes of Frequent Bowel Movements

No appetite

The digestive system will start to jam because it is inflamed. Loss of appetite is a common symptom of intestinal infections as well as signs of other digestive problems.

Nausea

Loss of appetite often accompanied by nausea, often described as a feeling of wanting vomiting.

Abdominal pain

When the infection becomes worse then one will feel pain in the abdominal area. The severity of this pain will depend on the location and causes of intestinal infections.

Stomach cramps

Bacterial causes of infection will usually cause cramps in the stomach. Cramps will often last for 3-4 minutes at a time, and can become increasingly severe and increasingly frequent.

Other causes:

  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Constipation
  • Headache.

Proper antibiotics for intestinal infections

Intestinal infections include dysentery, typhoid fever, appendicitis, and hemorrhoid. Let’s break down one by one type of intestinal infection.

Dysentery

Dysentery comes from the Greek, i.e. Dys (disorder) and enteron (intestines), which means inflammation in the intestines so as to cause widespread symptoms such as defecation with blood-mixed stool, diarrhea is dilute to slight volume, defecation with the stool mixed with mucus and pain during bowel movements (Tenesmus).

Read also: Mucus In Bowel Movement Causes + Video

The antibiotic medication used in this disease is aimed at killing the cause of this type of disease with a standing dose level of the symptoms that arise and their severity. In other terms can be given using a doctor’s prescription.

The principle bacillary dysentery in taking treatment, is resting, prevent or treat dehydration and in severe cases administered

  • Antibiotic for amoebic dysentery or carrier: Iodoquinol (Diidohydroxiquin) 650 mg 3 times a day for 20 days,
  • Amebiasis intestinal mild or moderate: tetracycline 500 mg 4 times daily for 5 days.
  • Amebiasis Intestinal heavy use: Metronidazole 750 mg 3 times daily for 5-10 days, tetracycline 500 mg 4 times a day for 5 days and Emetin 1 m/kgBW/IM for 5-10 days, chloroquine phosphate 1 gram daily for 2 days continued 500 mg/day for 4 weeks and Emetin 1mg/kgBW/IM for 10 days.

Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever is a colon infection caused by Salmonella typhi or Salmonella paratyphi A, B, and C that can be transmitted through oral, Fecal, food and beverages that are contaminated and accompanied by an impaired digestive system with or without impaired consciousness.

The antibiotic drugs commonly used in this disease are Chlorampenicol, Amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and Cotrimoxazole.

Appendicitis

Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix vermiformis. Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute inflammation in the lower right quadrant of the abdominal cavity. Appendicitis is a condition where infections occur in the tapeworm.

Antibiotic medications should include organisms that commonly found (Bacteroides, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas species).

The Regimen often used intravenously is ampicillin (100 mg/kg/24 h), gentamicin (5 mg/kg/24 h), and Clindamycin (40 mg/kg/24 h), or Metronidazole (Flagyl) (30 mg/kg/24 hours).

The appendectomy is performed with or without drainage of peritoneal fluid, and antibiotics are continued for 7-10 days.

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoid comes from the words  “Haima” and  “Rheo”‘. In the medical, it means the dilation of veins (blood vessels) in the hemorrhoidal plexus in the anus area. The hemorrhoid is a blood circulation disorder in the form of the dilation of veins.

Antibiotic drugs commonly used for this disease are Anusol, Boraginol, Ultraproct, Anusol HC, Scheriproct, Ardium 500 mg and placebo 3×2 tablets for 4 days, then 2×2 for 3 days.

Read also: Rectal Bleeding After Bowel Movement: The Causes, and How To Avoid It

Thank you very much for reading Intestinal Infection: Types, Causes, Symptoms, and Antibiotic treatment, hopefully useful.

Intestinal Infection: Types, 3 Causes, Symptoms, and Antibiotic treatment

Post in | Last updated: April 24th, 2020 |