How Does Insulin Work? Insulin is a hormone secreted by pancreatic cells. Insulin is produced by the beta cell of Langerhans Island. The pancreatic cells responsible for producing insulin were discovered by Paul Langerhans, a German pathologist and biology. These cells look like islands, which they name the island of Langerhans.
On the island of Langerhans, two types of cells are found, namely alpha and beta cells. Beta cells are associated with the production and secretion of insulin. The term insulin comes from the Latin word “insula”, meaning island. The main function of insulin is to regulate blood glucose levels.
Insulin is used in the treatment of some types of diabetes mellitus. Patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 depend on exogenous insulin (injected under the skin or subcutaneous) for its safety due to the absolute deficiency of the hormone; Patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 have low insulin or immune production levels, and sometimes require insulin regulation when other treatments are not enough to regulate blood glucose levels.
Understanding Insulin function
The hormone Insulin ensures the absorption of glucose by muscle cells, liver, and fatty tissues from the bloodstream. Insulin also helps the liver and muscle cells save glucose in the form of glycogen for use in the future. Insulin prevents the use of fat to gain energy.
How Does Insulin Work?
Insulin is produced by beta cells of the pancreas, enters the circulatory system and works on the affected tissues (primarily the liver, muscles, and fat tissues). Insulin binds in its receptors (insulin receptors) on the target cell membrane produce a series of events within the cell.
The important result is the stimulation of glucose transporter (GLUT) originally in the cytosol to be moved to the cell membrane. When GLUT (the entrance of glucose to the cell) is ready, glucose can enter into the target cell, and the rate decreases in the blood.
In addition, insulin also:
- Stimulates the storage and use of amino acids and fatty acids (in addition to glucose)
- Inhibit the breakdown of glycogen, fats, and proteins.
How Does Insulin Work according to Dr. Bernadette Hromin, MD
Simply put, insulin helps the body to maintain blood glucose levels in its normal state by storing excessive glucose in the liver and muscle cells. How is that possible? Check out Dr. Bernadette Hromin’s explanation, an Ophthalmologist and New York health expert on how insulin works in the body.
The food consists of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Well, carbohydrates are one of the largest donors of sugar in the body, though proteins and fats also have sugar levels. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose and into the blood circulation, automatic sugar levels in the blood increases.
When receiving such stimuli, the pancreas releases insulin to regulate the transport or entry of glucose from the blood into the cell so that blood glucose can descend. After working on the blood cells, insulin works in the liver to store glucose. Conversely, when you do not eat, insulin decreases and the liver break down the glycogen into glucose and enters the blood so that blood glucose is retained under normal circumstances.
Continuously the pancreas releases insulin when you eat or not. That’s why when you haven’t eaten, your blood levels tend to fall. Generally, healthy people produce about 33 insulin units per day. Wow, it is a really great performance of insulin in normalizing the blood sugar levels.
Effects of Insulin on carbohydrate metabolism
After eating, the digestion process the food lasts for 2 hours and at that time, the pancreas releases insulin into the small intestine. Then assisted with insulin to process of food absorption, so that blood glucose increases
Insulin is useful for entering glucose into cells or organs throughout the body for use in all activities. The remaining glucose is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver, muscles and other tissues. Glycogen can be used again into glucose if needed, such as when we fast. This process is performed by the glucagon hormone.
That is, how does insulin work as a lowering of the rising blood sugar levels.