Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System: Definitions, 4 Components, Anatomy – Physiology, Functions, and Development

The cardiovascular system is a circulatory organ consisting of the heart, blood components and blood vessels that serve to provide and drain the oxygen and nutrient supplies throughout the body tissues necessary in the body’s metabolic processes.

The cardiovascular system requires many varied mechanisms in order for its regulatory functions to respond to body activity, one of which is to increase blood supply activity in order for tissue activity to be fulfilled.

In severe circumstances, the blood flow is more directed at vital organs such as the heart and brain that serve to maintain the circulatory system itself.

Cardiovascular System Definition

The system in tasked with supplying blood to the entire tissue of the body for the metabolic purposes of cells as well as pulling blood back to the heart to further free up residual metabolic material.

Cardiovascular System Components


The heart is located in the mediastinum cavity of the chest cavity (thorax) between the two lungs. The membrane that lines the heart is called the pericardium, which consists of 2 layers:

  • Pericardium parietal, which is the outer layer attached to the sternum and the membranes of the lungs.
  • Visceral pericardium, which is the surface layer of the heart itself is also called epicardium.

Between the two layers is pericardium liquid as a lubricant that serves to reduce friction due to the movement of the heart while pumping.

Heart Anatomy

  • Length: 12 Cm, Width: 9 Cm
  • Weight: 250-390 gr ( ♂ older persons)
    200-275 gr ( ♀ Older persons)
  • Location: thoracic cavity
  • Heart wall:
    ✓ Pericardium
    ✓ Myocardium
    〉 Endocardium

Heart Properties

  • Rhythmicity (chronotropic)
  • Conductivity (dromotropic)
  • Excitability (bathmotropic)
  • Inotropic: Starling’s law of the heart.

Other components

  • Cardiac Conduction System
  • Blood Vessels
  • Regulatory System.

Cardiovascular Anatomy and Physiology

The heart is shaped like a pear/cone like an inverted pyramid with the apex (superior-posterior: C-II) at the bottom and the base (anterior-inferior ICS – V) is on top.

At the heart base, there are aorta, pulmonary veins, upper and lower back vessels and back veins.

The heart as the center of the cardiovascular system is located next to the left cavity (thoracic cavity) which is protected by the ribs precisely on the mediastinum.

To find out the heart rate, we can check under papilla mammae 2 fingers afterwards. The weight in older persons is about 250-350 grams. The heart’s relationship with the surrounding tools is:

  • The front wall is associated with sternum and costal cartilage as high as the III-I ribs.
  • The side is related to the lungs and facies mediastinalis.
  • Upper torso IV and cervical II are associated with pulmonary aorta, left bronchus and cynical bronchi.
  • Behind the organs of the posterior mediastinum, esophagus, aorta desendens, azygos vein, and thoracic vertebral column.

The heart is fixated in place so that it does not easily move. The main heart support is the lung that presses the heart from the side, the diaphragm supports from below, the blood vessels that come in and out of the heart so that the heart does not move easily. Factors that affect the position of the heart are:

  • Age: In old age, the tools in the thoracic cavity, including the heart slightly drop down
  • The shape of the chest cavity
  • Diaphragm location: In the event of an upward diaphragm suppression it will push the bottom of the heart upwards
  • Changes in body position: normal heart projection is influenced by the position of the body.

Cardiovascular System Functions

  1. Transport:
    • Blood
    • Material / metabolites
    • O2/CO2
  2. Balance:
    • Temperature
    • Blood pressure
    • Water / electrolytes
  3. Hormonal: Atrial Natriuretic

Cardiovascular System Development

The cardiovascular system begins to function at 3 weeks gestation. In the cardiovascular system, there is the largest blood vessel called Angioblast. This angioblast arises from:

  • Mesoderm: splanchnic and chorionic
  • Yolk sac and umbilical cord
  • And it can also cause by blood vessels and blood

At the beginning of its development in the third week, the heart tube begins to develop in the splanchnic which is between the pericardial and IEC parts and the roof of the secondary yolk valve (cardiogenic area).

Read also:
Differences between veins and arteries

Last Updated on September 11, 2020 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team