Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that occurs in women of childbearing age. PCOS sufferers have menstrual disorders and have excessive levels of masculine hormones (androgen hormones).
Excess androgen hormones in PCOS sufferers can result in the ovaries producing many bags of fluid. As a result, the egg does not develop perfectly and fails to be released regularly.
The consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome can also cause sufferers to be infertile, as well as more susceptible to diabetes and high blood pressure.
Symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome can arise when a woman experiences her first period during puberty. Although PCOS symptoms often appear in adolescence, there are also PCOS sufferers who have recently experienced symptoms after adulthood or during a certain period, for example when experiencing significant weight gain.
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PCOS and Pregnancy: Symptoms, How long, and How to get Pregnant
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Causes and Risk Factors
The main cause of PCOS to date is still unknown. However, some factors, such as genetic factors are attributed by experts as one of the causes. This genetic factor is associated with a high increase in androgens in women with PCOS. Androgens are often called male hormones because they are the dominant hormone in males, whereas in women, these hormones are produced only in small amounts.
Androgens are tasked with controlling the development of masculine features, such as androgen baldness or male pattern baldness. Based on this, hormonal imbalances can occur, when a woman has PCOS. The imbalance of these hormones occurs because androgen production becomes more than normal androgen levels in the female body.
These unbalanced androgen hormones cause abnormal hair growth and acne, in addition to the condition, women are also unable to release the ovum from ovaries every menstruation.
High insulin level
In addition to high androgen levels, women with PCOS also tend to have high insulin levels, especially those with more weight or have a history of diabetes mellitus in the family. Insulin is a hormone that is responsible for regulating carbohydrates that enter the body to be used as energy.
While insulin resistance is a condition in which the body is unable to respond to insulin normally, there is an increase in glucose and insulin levels in the blood. Excess insulin results in increased production of androgen hormones, this can interfere with the ovulation process.
Mild Degree of Inflammation
Some studies show that women with PCOS have a type of mild degree of inflammation that causes the ovaries to produce androgens, as well as causing heart and blood vessel problems.
Hormonal imbalances in the body
Generally, women who have PCOS syndrome are the one who has an imbalance of hormone levels in their body.
Until now, it has not been known exactly why hormonal changes are one of the various causes of PCOS.
Luteinising hormone (LH)
In addition, there is also Luteinising hormone (LH), which is a hormone that stimulates the onion of ovulation.
Changes in the amount of this hormone are one of the causes of the cause of PCOS.
This is because when the hormone levels exceed normal limits, it can interfere with ovarian function in producing eggs.
In addition, the prolactin hormone stimulates the breast gland to produce breast milk during pregnancy.
However, this hormone can also trigger the onset of PCOS if the amount is excessive.
Obesity or overweight is another cause of PCOS. When the body has a weight that exceeds the ideal limit, resistance to insulin will get worse.
In fact, women suffering from PCOS may also experience resistance to insulin, but the symptoms do not arise due to ideal weight gain.
Meanwhile, increased weight instead triggers insulin resistance to show a variety of symptoms.
Such as irregular menstrual cycles or fairly excessive hair growth.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Complications
Polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS can cause several complications to be aware of, these complications can include:
- Gestational diabetes or high blood pressure due to pregnancy
- Miscarriage or premature birth
- Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe inflammation of the liver caused by fat buildup in the liver
- Metabolic syndrome, which can cause several conditions such as high blood pressure, high blood sugar, as well as abnormal levels of cholesterol or triglycerides that can increase heart disease
- Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes
- Sleep apnea
- Depression, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders
- Abnormal uterine bleeding
- Uterine cancer (endometrial cancer)