Genetic engineering is described as a science where characteristics of an organism are deliberately modified by genetic manipulation.
It usually uses DNA and certain gene transformations to create new variations.
By manipulating the DNA and moving it from an organism to another organism, it is possible to include the properties of almost all organisms.
Today’s transgenic organisms are mass-produced such as enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, nutrients, hormones, and pharmaceutical products i.e. Drugs and vaccines.
Benefits of Genetic Engineering
The application of genetic engineering is very helpful in fulfilling the needs of human life, including providing the food needs of the future with better quality.
Used as an alternative source of renewable energy, such as biomass and biofuels that can replace conventional energy sources.
Then better health care, with more effective medications. As well as better agricultural efficiency and the use of relatively fewer chemical pesticides.
How does genetic engineering work?
DNA is responsible for all characteristics of an organism. For example, in humans, DNA is responsible for eye color, hair color, height, and so on. Here’s how genetic engineering works.
- Find natural organisms that have the desired properties or characteristics.
- DNA is extracted from the organism.
- The desired genes must be found and copied from thousands of genes that are extracted.
- Genes can be modified slightly to work in a more desirable way.
- New genes are sent to the recipient cell organism.
- Increase it by breeding.
When genes are taken from other organisms, then inserted into the recipient organism, it is possible to acquire the same abilities and properties.
Genetic engineering examples
Medicine, manufacture of proteins, hormones, tissues, and organs
In the medical world, e.g. Hormone production of insulin is no longer synthesized from mammals, but can be produced by bacterial cells in a cloning way. An example of making human insulin by bacteria, making vaccines against AIDS viruses.
Medicine, pharmaceuticals in the field of pharmacy
In the pharmaceutical world, genes controlling the synthesis of drugs if produced naturally will require high production costs. If the cloned and inserted into the bacterial cells, the bacteria will produce the medicines.
Genetic engineering is so rapidly gaining attention in the pharmaceutical field in the efforts of making a protein that is indispensable for health.
Healing of permanent genetic illness by gene therapy
Researchers have also used genetic engineering to treat genetic disorders. This process called gene therapy, includes inserting a duplicate of several genes directly into a person’s cell that has a genetic disorder.
Genetic Engineering Facts That Are Beneficial to Human Life
More than 40 different plant types can be genetically engineered
So far, there are more than 40 genetically modified plants around the world, but much smaller amounts are grown commercially and are widely available. According to the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, the more common plants involved in genetic engineering are corn, soy, cotton, papaya, rice, tobacco, walnuts and berries.
Bacteria are one of the first genetically modified organisms.
Bacteria are one of the world’s first genetically engineered organisms, just because their genetics are simple. For the same reason, they are still widely used today in genetic engineering research and experiments.
One of the most important areas of this kind of research is the treatment, and scientists can now produce insulin to treat diabetes from bacteria as well as clotting and human growth hormone factors. But the drug is not the only field in which genetically modified bacteria are useful. We can manufacture fuel with the help of bacteria, as well as processed foods and many other things that make everyday life easier.
Genetically engineered viruses used in human gene therapy.
Bacteria are not the only potentially dangerous organism we use in today’s genetic engineering. Viruses are also very popular and with good reason, they are used for a relatively new type of treatment known as gene therapy. And how exactly does gene therapy work?
Genetically modified viruses are used to transmit genes that can cure certain types of diseases in the human body. We are still far from revealing all of its secrets, but in time, gene therapy can help heal diseases that are currently difficult to cure, such as Parkinson’s disease, cancer, diabetes, and a variety of other rarely known conditions
- Genetically modified plants help create stunning blue roses.
- Genetically modified plants spread rapidly throughout the world
- Mammals have been genetically engineered.
- Genetically engineered mammals are used to help find healing for a number of diseases.
- Genetic engineering is also used in the production of human therapies.
- Genetically engineered fish are even used as pets.
- Genetic modification of invertebrates brings important scientific advances.
Genetic engineering impact on individuals (Positive and negative)
|Positive impact||Negative impact|
|Producing superior individuals||There are ethical problems|
|Improve genetic quality||Potential for allergies|
|Improving the quality of human health||Disrupt the balance of nature|
|Increased number of harvests|