Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Definition, 8 Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention [Mad Cow Disease]

Infectious diseases are generally caused by infections of fungal, bacterial, or viral microorganisms, but are different from mad cow disease or Insane cow diseases, which is caused by proteins and can damage the neural tissues in a person. Although this disease is rarely found, the progression of this disease always leads to death.

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Definition

Mad cow disease is a brain disorder caused by consuming infected beef. The disease is characterized by an emotional disorder followed by a gradual decline in nerve function.

In the medical world, the mad cow disease that specifically attacked cows is known as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). Named as the mad cow disease because the cows affected by this disease tend to be aggressive and go berserk.

Read also:
Brain Damage Causes and Symptoms

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Humans

In humans, mad cow disease is known by the term variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD). The transmission of crazy cow disease to humans is usually caused by consuming the beef that is infected by BSE.

Based on the World Health Organization report (WHO) in 2017, most of the cases of mad cow disease were found in Britain, followed by France, Spain, Ireland, and the Americas. Crazy cow cases are also found in the Netherlands, Italy, Portugal, Canada, as well as some Asian countries, such as Japan, Saudi Arabia, and Taiwan.

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Symptoms

Most of the mad cow disease dies within a year since the first symptoms arise. Generally, the crazy cow disease is characterized by the emergence of several symptoms below:

  • Memory and other brain function disorders.
  • Personality changes.
  • Impaired balance.
  • Talk is unclear and impaired vision.
  • Experiencing psychological disorders such as anxious depression.
  • Some parts of the body are tingling and difficult to move.
  • Experiencing insomnia, dementia, and it can continue to be a coma.
  • If not handled appropriately, the crazy cow disease can cause complications in the brain. If that happens, someone will have difficulty thinking, remembering, self-alienating from friends and family, and generally being unconcerned about themselves. Most severely, this disease can lead to death.

Causes of mad cow disease

Experts do not yet know the cause of mad cow disease. However, they estimate that the disease is caused by damage to a type of protein called prion.

The prion is found in the brain, bone marrow, and the colon in farm animals who are experiencing insane cow disease. Until now, there has been no research that could prove that the damage was found in meat or dairy animals.

If people consume the brain or spinal cord from a farm animal that contains prion, these proteins will enter the human body and attack the central nervous system, namely the brain and spinal cord.

Mad Cow disease Diagnosis

Confirmation of the presence of mad cow disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob can only be done through brain biopsy or post-death brain tissue Examination (autopsy). However, doctors can generally define a diagnosis with detailed medical interviews, PHISYCS and neurological examinations, and specific diagnostic checks.

Physical examinations can indicate typical symptoms such as muscle contraction and spasm, abnormal reflexes, and coordination disorders. Individuals with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can also experience blindness areas as well as changes in visual-spatial perception.

In addition, the doctor may also conduct several supporting examinations to determine the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease:

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG). Using electrodes placed on the head, this examination measures the electrical activity of the brain. Individuals with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease generally exhibit typical abnormal patterns.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This imaging examination uses radio waves and magnetic fields to produce a head and body imaging. This examination is especially beneficial in diagnosing brain abnormalities.
  • Examination of spinal fluid. With a procedure called a lumbar puncture, the doctor uses needles to take a little spinal fluid to evaluate further. Certain types of proteins in the spinal fluid can lead to the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Treatment and prevention of diseases of crazy cows

Unfortunately, until now there has been no treatment that can cure someone who is experiencing mad cow disease. VCJD disease only has the opportunity to detect through an MRI examination to see the development or disability of the patient’s brain.

The medical efforts that can be undertaken only aim to relieve the symptoms that occur during the sick period, but do not inhibit or stop the progression of the disease.

In addition, the prevention can be done in the form of guarantee that the animal processed products are consumed free from the risk of a prion transmits of BSE in animals.

Last Updated on November 14, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team

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