Polio Vaccine: Types, Schedule, and Rules of Use – Polio is an infectious disease caused by viruses that exist in the gastrointestinal tract and throat. Preventing polio can be done with immunization, especially in children under the age of five (toddlers), through a drip immunization or injection polio immunization.
In certain circumstances, a person infected with polio may experience a permanent paralysis, even causing death. Polio can appear without any symptoms. This disease can also be transmitted through contact with fluid that comes out of the nose, mouth, and stool of someone who has been infected with polio.
Learn more about Polio immunization
Polio immunization is a vaccine used to protect the body from the disturbance of poliomyelitis or polio infection. This polio vaccine is essential for preventing infection. Because if left untreated, polio can harm and threaten the lives of its sufferer.
Polio Vaccine Types
There are two types of polio immunization that must be given to children.
- First, oral polio immunization or oral polio vaccine (OPV) which is a weakened type.
- Secondly, an injectable polio or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) that uses type has been disabled, then administered by injection.
Polio Vaccine Schedule
The polio vaccine is administered four times, namely
- When the newborn,
- Then continued in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th month.
- Dose Booster is administered when reaching the age of 18 months.
- Advanced dose administered at the age of 4-6 years
Newborns are given OPV, then for subsequent polio vaccinations can be administered IPV or OPV. Only, every child should at least get one dose of IPV.
The polio drip vaccine should not be administered to people with low immune systems such as those with HIV/AIDS, people who are undergoing chemotherapy, etc.
Special injection polio vaccine, its administration should not be by intravenous injections, it can only through intramuscular and subcutaneous pathways.
In general, older persons do not need a polio vaccine because it is already getting vaccines when children. But there are some conditions that have a risk factor can be infected with polio and need to get polio vaccine, namely:
- Travelling to polio contracted areas so it is necessary to consult with a doctor regarding the need for polio vaccine.
- Working in a laboratory with a specimen containing polio virus.
- Work in health services that require direct contact with the person infected with polio virus.
Older persons who have such risk factors and have never gotten a polio vaccine, such as:
- The first dose can be administered at any time
- The second dose can be administered 1 to 2 months after administration of the first dose
- The third dose can be administered 6 to 12 months after administration of the second dose
Medicinal use rules
Always follow the advice of a doctor or read the instructions on the magnesium sulfate packaging before use.
Injections of polio vaccine should be performed intramuscular or subcutaneous, do not give intravenous injections.
To vaccine polio drops, when not swallowed properly or vomited in 5-10 minutes after receiving polio drip vaccine, repeat the administration of polio drip vaccine. If the repeated vaccine administration has been done but still has not succeeded as well, repeat the administration of vaccines on subsequent visits.
After getting the vaccine polio drops, avoid administering intramuscular antibiotic injections for at least 30 days.
If after polio vaccine, the child has pain or fever, consult a doctor about the administration of pain reliever, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. Especially for IPV polio vaccine, administering this vaccine can cause red spots that feel pain at the site of injection.
As with most medicines, polio vaccine also has the risk of triggering allergies and other risks that are relatively small. It is advisable to delay polio vaccine when the child’s condition is not fit or sick.
In the case of vaccination causing allergies, the polio vaccine administration may not be resumed. In children who are known to have severe allergies to neomycin, streptomycin and polymyxin B, it is likely not recommended to get the injectable polio vaccine.