What is Recombinant DNA: Definition, Uses, and Components – Since ancient times, our ancestors have known a wide variety of living creatures. The variety of living creatures give the possibility for man to choose as he wishes. Our predecessors have also understood that the properties of the organism were passed down to their offspring.
The diversity has given our ancestors the ability to choose the kind of living being whose traits are as desired. The type with the cooled properties is then bred or cultivated.
The development of science, especially the science of devolution of nature (Genetics) pioneered by Gregor Mendel has encouraged humans to create new combinations of desirable traits. Efforts to obtain a new combination of desired properties are carried out by making crosses (breeding) between various plants and animals.
These crosses produce hybrid organisms. For example, hybrid corn, hybrid coconut, hybrid orchids, and other hybrids. Hybrid plants and animals have genomes that differ from those of their parents. Thus, breeding is one way to change the genome of an organism.
With the discovery of DNA as a gene material, humans are also working to obtain a combination of new traits of a living being by making direct changes to the DNA of the genome. This attempt to change genome DNA is referred to as Genetic Engineering. In an effort to genetically engineer, humans use recombinant DNA technology.
What is Recombinant DNA?
DNA recombination (rDNA) is an attempt to put DNA from an organism into bacterial DNA by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together through the genetic connection.
In terms of genetic modification, it is created through the introduction of relevant DNA into the DNA of existing organisms such as plasmids and bacteria, to code or alter different traits with specific purposes such as antibiotic resistance.
This differs from genetic recombination in that it does not occur through in cells, but in engineering. A recombinant protein is a protein produced from recombinant DNA.
Which is one of the first uses of recombinant DNA in botany, many plants have fairly adaptable genomes that make it possible for them to be ready to combine DNA from distantly related species. By splicing new genes, scientists have been able to develop plants that are resistant to extreme environmental conditions including drought and heat.
What is Recombinant DNA Used For?
The general purpose is to connect the genes that are in the DNA so that new organisms are acquired. Here’s an example:
- Health fields: mass production of human insulin, manufacture of hepatitis B virus vaccine, production of human growth hormone (GH), gene therapy for disease.
- Agricultural fields: the manufacture of ice bacteria (freeze resistant bacteria), microbes that degrade raw materials, pest-resistant plants, improvement of food nutrition.
- Field of science development: helping efforts to understand the occurrence of abnormalities in humans, the embodiment of the human genome projects and other organisms.
Components of recombinant DNA technology
The components involved in the recombinant DNA process are donor DNA (insert), Restriction Endonuclease Enzymes, Vector, Ligase DNA, Host Cell.
Donor DNA (insert)
Donor DNA (insert) is a Source of DNA or genes combined or inserted or connected to DNA from other organisms.
Restriction Endonuclease Enzymes
Restriction endonuclease is an enzyme used to cut donor and vector DNA at specific locations, so that donor DNA can be connected into vectors.
Vectors are plasmids or bacteriophages used to introduce genes in order to be transformed into a suitable host cell.
Ligase DNA is an enzyme used to combine the splice ends of a vector and donor DNA, and then form a recombinant vector.
Commonly used host cells are usually a bacterium or yeast. Place introverted recombinant vectors into the host cell.
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Last Updated on October 5, 2020 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team