What is Polio Disease
What is Polio Disease

What is Polio Disease: Definition, 10 Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

What is Polio Disease: Definition, Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis – Poliomyelitis or polio is a neurological disease that can cause permanent paralysis. The disease is caused by a viral infection and is highly contagious, but can be prevented by immunization of polio.

Most polio sufferers are toddlers, especially those who have not undergone polio immunization. However, polio can be experienced by anyone without age restrictions. In addition to permanent paralysis, polio can also cause respiratory nerve disorders that make it difficult for sufferers to breathe.

What is Polio Disease?

Polio is a disease that attacks the central system and is caused by a viral infection that is very easily spread. This disease is very easy to spread, especially in children under the age of 5 years.

What is polio disease caused by?

Polio disease is caused by the polio virus. The virus enters through the oral cavity or nose, then spreads in the body through the bloodstream.

There are three types of polio virus and all three can cause paralysis. The three types of viruses are:

  1. Type 1, the Brunhilde type that originated from the name of a monkey, where this type was first discovered.
  2. Type 2, which is the Lansing type defined by the name of the city in the United States where type 2 was first discovered.
  3. Type 3, which is Leon type derived from the name of a sufferer who was first discovered type 3 of his feces..

The spread of polio virus can occur through direct contact with the feces of polio sufferers, or through the consumption of food and beverages that have been contaminated with polio virus. The virus can also be spread through saliva splashes when sufferers cough or sneeze, but it is less common.

The polio virus is very easy to attack people who have not received polio vaccine, especially in the following conditions:

  • Live in areas with poor sanitation or limited access to clean water.
  • She’s pregnant.
  • Have a weakened immune system, for example, AIDS sufferers.
  • Caring for family members infected with polio virus.
  • Had undergone tonsil removal.
  • Undergo strenuous activity or experience stress after exposure to polio virus.
  • Working as a health worker who treats polio patients.
  • Travel to areas that have experienced polio outbreaks.

Polio Disease Symptoms

Symptoms of this polio disease can appear variously. Although 95 to 99% of people infected with this polio virus do not have any symptoms. However, please note, even if the polio sufferer has no symptoms, he can still spread the virus to others around him.

Symptoms of non-paralysis type polio are as follows:

  • Fever.
  • Swallowing pain.
  • Headaches.
  • Vomiting.
  • Limp.
  • Meningitis.

Symptoms of paralysis type polio are as follows:

  • The initial symptoms may resemble non-paralysis type polio, but after one week, other symptoms will follow.
  • Lost reflexes.
  • Severe muscle pain and muscle cramps.
  • The legs become drooping.
  • Paralysis occurs suddenly, this can be temporary or permanent.
  • Abnormalities of the lower extremities, especially in the hips and ankles.

Post-polio syndrome

Polio is very likely to reappear even though a person has been declared cured. This can occur 15 – 40 years after a person is first infected. Very common symptoms include:

  • Weakness in muscles and joints.
  • Muscle pain that continues to worsen.
  • Become easily tired and lethargic.
  • Reduced muscle mass.
  • Difficulty in swallowing and breathing.
  • Sleep-apnea, impaired breathing during sleep.
  • Low tolerance to cold weather
  • Depression.
  • Problems with concentration and memory.

Diagnosis polio disease

To determine the diagnosis of polio disease is done through medical interviews and physical examinations. The doctor will examine the typical symptoms of paralysis in the child, which are accompanied by non-specific symptoms of viral infection, such as fever, muscle aches and sore throat.

Polio virus can be detected through examination of specimens from the throat and feces. Some commonly used virus screening methods are virus screening, genome sequencing, and serological examination.


Last Updated on April 4, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team


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