What Is Hydrolysis
What Is Hydrolysis

What Is Hydrolysis: Definition, 4 Types, and Salt Hydrolysis Definition and Reaction

What Is Hydrolysis?

Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which H2O (molecules of water) will be decomposed into the form of H+ cations (hydrogen) and ANION OH– (hydroxide) through a chemical process. The process is commonly used in breaking down a particular polymer, especially a polymer that is made through a gradual process of polymerization or known as step_growth_polimerization.

The term hydrolysis itself is derived from the Greek word hydro which means water and “lysis” with the meaning of separation.

Simply the meaning of hydrolysis is the process of cleavage of chemical bonds with the addition of water. For example, a sucrose saccharification process. Saccharification is a breakdown of carbohydrates into components of sugar molecules through hydrolysis. For example, sucrose is broken down into fructose as well as glucose. Generally hydrolysis or saccharification is a step in the degradation of substances.

Hydrolysis Types

There are several types of hydrolysis and we will see it briefly below.

Salt Hydrolysis

This is the most common type of hydrolysis. Salt hydrolysis generally refer to a salt reaction with water that involves the interaction between cation or anion salt and water. During hydrolysis, the salt decomposes into ions, completely or partially depending on the solubility factor.

Acids and Bases Hydrolysis

Acid-base-based hydrolysis can be found during ester or amide hydrolysis. Here, the hydrolysis process occurs when water or hydroxyl ions react with carbonyl clusters of esters or amides in which new compounds are formed. The products of both hydrolysis are compounds with carboxylic acid clusters.

ATP hydrolysis

Most biochemical reactions that occur in living organisms are in the form of ATP hydrolysis that occurs with the help of enzymes that act as catalysts. The catalytic action of enzymes allows hydrolysis or decomposition of proteins, lipids, oils, fats and carbohydrates.

Polysaccharide hydrolysis

Various sugars such as disaccharides or polysaccharides can be broken down by dissolving them in water, when the hydrogen bonds with oxygen at the end of the sugar molecule, while hydroxyl ions (OH-) bond with the rest. In this way, sugar is simplified, allowing complex molecules to be transferred to similar molecules, much simpler, and it is a process carried out regularly by life forms.

What Is Hydrolysis of Salt?

The definition of salt hydrolysis is the decomposing reaction that occurs between cation and salt anion with water in a solution.

Some of the properties and characteristics of salt hydrolysis are as follows:

  • Produces acids and salt-forming bases.
  • Cations and anions of the strong acid-base cannot be hydrolyzed because they are perfectly ionized.
  • Salt is not hydrolyzed if neither cation nor anion reacts.
  • Salt is partially hydrolyzed if one of the cations or anions reacts.
  • Salt is hydrolyzed perfectly if cations and anions react.

Salt Hydrolysis Reaction

There are 3 reactions that occur in salt Hydrolysis which is perfect hydrolysis, partial hydrolysis, and non-hydrolysis. Hydrolysis perfectly occurs from weak acid compounds and weak bases, Hydrolysis occurs in part from strong base compounds and weak acids,  non hydrolyzed reactions occur from strong acids and strong bases. Examples of such salt hydrolysis reactions are as follows:

Partial salt hydrolysis reaction

Partial salt hydrolysis reaction

Complete salt hydrolysis reaction

Complete salt hydrolysis reaction

The properties of salt in Hydrolysis are perfectly dependent on the value of Ka and Kb.

  • If Ka = Kb, then the salt is neutral.
  • If Ka > Kb, then the salt is acidic.
  • If Kb > Ka, then the salt is alkaline.

In hydrolysis reactions, the amount of salt that undergoes hydrolysis is only slight, but still causes changes in the pH value of the solution. Therefore hydrolysis reactions are also called equilibrium reactions. The hydrolysis reaction balance is called hydrolysis constant (Kw).

Read also:
Cell Membrane: Description, Functions, Structure, and Properties

The pH saline solution of a strong acid and the right strong base to react is pH=7 (neutral). The pH value of the saline solution of acids and non-strong bases are calculated based on the hydrolysis rated value (Kh), and the acid and base ionization rated (Ka and Kb). The salt value of the acid is strong, and the base is weak pH < 7. This salt is acidic.

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What Is Hydrolysis: Definition, 4 Types, and Salt Hydrolysis Definition and Reaction

Post in | Last updated: November 22nd, 2020 |