Urinary tract infection
Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infection: 10 Causes, Diagnosis, and Prevention

Urinary tract infection (UTIs) is a condition in which organs belonging to the urinary system, namely the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, are infected. Generally, UTIs occur in the bladder and urethra.

Starting from the kidneys, residual substances in the blood are filtered and secreted in the form of urine. Then, urine flows from the kidneys through the ureter, towards the bladder. After being accommodated in the bladder, the urine is then removed from the body through the release canal called the urethra, until it empties into the urinary hole.

Based on the infected part, the UTIs are divided into upper UTIs and lower UTIs. Upper UTIs are infections that occur in the upper part of the bladder, namely in the kidneys and ureters. While the lower UTIs are infections of the lower bladder, namely the bladder and urethra.

Upper UTIs are more dangerous and can trigger urosepsis, which is a condition when bacteria in the infected kidney spread to the blood. Urosepsis can cause blood pressure to drop to shock, even death.

Read also:
15 Signs of UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)

Urinary Tract Infection Causes

Bacterial bladder infections occur when bacteria from the outside enters the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply. In most cases, the infection is caused by E. Coli bacteria.

E. Coli bacteria normally live in the gut and do not cause problems, unless they enter the bladder. Some factors that can cause the entry of bacteria into the bladder are:

  • Cleaning the anus from back to front after defecation
  • Use of diaphragm contraceptives
  • Catheter use
  • Se**x.

Other causes

In addition to bacterial infections, bladder infections can also be caused by:

  • Side effects of chemotherapy drugs, such as cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide
  • Side effects of radiation therapy to the pelvis or surgery on the bladder
  • Other diseases, such as pros**tate enlargement, bladder stones, and diabetes
  • Weakened immune system, e.g. due to HIV or chemotherapy
  • Irritation due to chemicals contained in soap or sper**micide
  • Hormonal changes during menopause or pregnancy.

Read also:
How to cure a UTI (Urinary Tract Infection).

Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis

If you experience symptoms of UTIs, the doctor will perform an examination and procedure to determine the diagnosis. Checks include:

Urine examination

Urine examination, to see white blood cells, red blood cells, the presence of bacteria in urine, and so on. To reduce the chances of contamination from urine samples taken, you will be asked to clean the genital area before urinating. It is also advisable to only hold the urine that comes out in the middle of the urination process, by not accommodating the first urine out and at the end of urinating.

Urine culture examination

Urine culture examination, conducted to ensure the type of bacteria that cause infection as well as the most effective treatment to deal with it.

Urinary tract imaging

Urinary tract imaging, performed when the infection occurs repeatedly and the doctor suspects the presence of anatomical or structural abnormalities of the urinary tract. In this case, the doctor usually recommends ultrasound examination, computerized tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Cystoscopy examination

Cystoscopy examination, which can be done if other supporting examinations are considered insufficient to overcome urinary tract infections that occur. The cystoscopy is performed by inserting a cystoscope, which is a long, thin tuba that has a lens, to look into the urinary tract and bladder.

Urinary Tract Infection Prevention

The following ways to prevent urinary tract infections include:

  • Does not hold urine;
  • Always clean the pubic area from front to back after urinating;
  • Drink plenty of water;
  • Sprays of cleanliness of the female area, fragrance of the feminine area, and other products for the feminine area should be avoided as it will only irritate the mucosa;
  • Clean the genital area before inter**course;
  • After inter**course, urinate. It aims to get rid of bacteria that may have entered the urethra;
  • Do not wear panties for days; and
  • Do not wear tight undergarments as this increases humidity.

If the infection is not resolved immediately, it triggers urosepsis, which is a condition where bacteria in the infected kidneys spread to the blood. It is dangerous if urosepsis occurs because blood pressure drops, until shock to death, if urosepsis occurs.


Last Updated on March 4, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team


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