Toxic shock syndrome

Toxic Shock Syndrome: 2 Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

5/5 - (1 vote)

What is toxic shock syndrome?

Toxic shock syndrome is a rare condition of blood poisoning that is dangerous due to bacterial toxins. The cause of this syndrome is often the bacterial toxins Staphylococcus aureus, but it can also be from group A streptococcus bacteria.

The disease is associated with the use of tampons or sanitary pads during the menstrual cycle. On the other hand, as many manufacturers of tampon withdraw their products from the market, the level of toxic shock syndrome in menstruating women now decreases drastically.

How common is toxic shock syndrome?

Both men and women can suffer from toxic shock syndrome due to wounds or infections of the skin, lungs, throat or bones. Women are more at risk of being infected during menstruation. You can limit this disease by reducing risk factors. Consult a physician for further information.

Causes of Toxic Shock Syndrome

Toxic Shock Syndrome is cause by bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus, or staph.

The Staph bacteria are actually harmless and are commonly found in Miss V. How the bacteria cause toxic shock syndrome is still not understood. However, the growth of Staph bacteria is too much potentially releasing toxins, so the toxins get into the bloodstream.

Toxic shock syndrome causes
Toxic Shock Syndrome: 2 Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment 2

The full-blood Tampon is a very supportive environment for Staph bacteria to grow rapidly. It is also influenced by the base material of the tampons. In the case of sponge menstrual and diaphragm contraceptives, the use of the apparatus in Miss V for a long time (more than 30 hours) becomes one of the triggers of toxic shock syndrome.

Risk Factors

Here are some risks that can increase a person affected by toxic shock syndrome.

  • Using tampons, especially if you leave it longer than recommended or you can also use tampons with super absorbent power.
  • Using barrier contraceptives in women
  • Damage to the skin such as wounds or burns
  • Maternity
  • Having a staphylococcal infection, such as impetigo or cellulitis


Signs and symptoms of toxic shock syndrome include:

  • Sudden high fever
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)
  • Vomiting or diarrhea
  • The rash resembles sunlight, especially on the palms of your hands and soles of your feet
  • Confusion
  • Muscle aches
  • Redness of the eyes, mouth and throat
  • Seizures
  • Headaches.

When should you see a doctor

Contact your doctor immediately if you have any signs or symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. This is especially important if you have just used tampons or if you have skin sores or wound infections.


Toxic shock syndrome can develop rapidly. Complications may include:

  • Shock
  • Renal failure
  • Death


Diagnosis is enforced based on symptoms, physical examination results, and also routine blood screening. Examples of blood and infected tissues are examined in the laboratory for the bacterial culture. Blood screening is usually done to exclude other possible causes of this syndrome.

Toxic Shock syndrome Treatment

The doctor will try to eliminate the source of infection with the following steps:

  • Remove tampons, nasal packing or other potential sources of infection
  • Finding other sources of possible infections
  • Start using antibiotics via infusion pathways after the blood culture is taken quickly; Many physicians choose to treat more than one antibiotic because some of the organisms that cause Total Suspended Solid (TSS) are sometimes resistant to some antibiotics.

Doctors help support body function until the organ is cured with the following steps:

  • Provides fluid through infusion and medications to increase blood pressure
  • Correcting electrolytes
  • Monitor kidney and liver function

Patients should get oxygen if breathing difficulties. (Some people with severe lung failure should be assisted by an intubation process i.e. Inserting a tube into the throat and attached to the ventilator).


Women who use tampons can do various ways to prevent infections such as:

  • Not using highly absorbing tampons
  • Use tampons and pads alternately
  • Changing tampons every 4-8 hours
  • Avoid continuous use of tampons during menstrual periods

When re-using tampons within 4 months after experiencing this TS syndrome, it is likely to recur again, unless the prescribed antibiotic therapy has successfully destroyed the bacterial cause.

Read also: Acute Heart Failure: Causes, and 5 Signs-Symptoms

Thank you very much for reading Toxic Shock Syndrome: The Causes, Risk factors, Symptoms, Complication, Diagnosis, and Treatment, hopefully useful.

Last Updated on May 10, 2020 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team

Sharing is caring!