Scientific method
Scientific Method

Scientific Method: Definition, 5 Elements, Requirements, and Steps

What do we do when we are faced with a problem? The answer must be finding a solution or a way out of the problem, right? Whatever the case, want it to be mediocre, extraordinary, to even more scientific. One thing is for sure, there are always certain ways we can do that. For scientific issues, for example, we recognize this way as a scientific method.

Scientific method definition

Scientific method is a scientific process to obtain knowledge systematically through physical evidence. In physics, scientific methods ensure a conclusion that is supported by evidence and systematically composed.

If no scientific method is carried out, then the experiments conducted will be dubious and cannot be established a clear law or formula for the occurrence of a physic phenomenon.

Scientific Method Elements


Identification of relevant key traits belongs to subjects studied with observations and measurements.


Temporary theoretical conjecture that explains the measurement results.


Logical deduction from hypothesis.


Testing of characterization relationships with predictions and hypotheses.

Evaluation and repetition

Assessment of the accuracy of hypotheses and predictions based on results obtained during experiments, and repetition at certain stages if not obtained the appropriate results.

Scientific Method Requirements

There are several requirements needed in writing scientific methods, including systematic, consistent and operational.


All stages of scientific methods must be captured by human reason or real-state data that is proven and has become a reality.

Without Prejudice

Each stage of the scientific method gives results according to the circumstances, no opinion. Although there is a hypothesis, it remains a hypothesis, not far from the phenomenon. For example, the wrong prejudice is that we hypothesize that the phenomenon of abdominal pain in elementary school students is due to a full lesson schedule in one day.


Scientific method requirements
Scientific Method: Definition, 5 Elements, Requirements, and Steps 2

Each method should be presented in more detail so that each method is interconnected.


Systematic, which means the elements contained in scientific methods must be arranged in logical order;


It means there is conformity among the elements. For example the purpose must match the formulation of the proposed problem; 


Operationa;, which means scientific methods can explain how the research is conducted.

Scientific Method Steps

There are five basic steps or stages in writing scientific methods. Starting from formulating problems, collecting information, compiling hypotheses, conducting experiments and analyzing data, drawing conclusions to communicating the results of research.

Formulating Problems

Problems are usually questions that must be answered by conducting a scientific study.

There are a few things to take into account when we’re going to formulate a problem:

  • The issue should be disclosed as a question sentence
  • The words of the problem should be short, concise, clear and easy to understand.
  • The formulation of problems must be a problem that can be solved.

Collecting Information

After formulating the problem, the next step we have to do is collect information or data. This can be done by observation or literature studies such as scientific journals, or other studies that have existed before.

Compiling hypotheses

At the next stage, after we make observations and get data, then all we have to do is make a hypothesis. The hypothesis is a temporary answer to a problem that is still a presumption because it still has to be proven to be true through research.


To test the truth of the hypothesis or the temporary answer we have made in the previous stage, then all we have to do is do an experiment or research. Research should be done carefully so that accurate data is obtained.

Analyzing Data

At this stage, the data that we have obtained from the results of the study is then recorded and processed into the form of charts or diagrams so that it is easy to analyze.

Making Conclusions

The withdrawal of conclusions is carefully based on the results of the experiment, without the influence of personal opinions. The conclusion is the real answer of the hypothesis that has been proposed.

Communicating Research Results

The final step is to communicate publishing research results to others in the form of written reports or through discussion forums and seminars.

Last Updated on August 27, 2020 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team

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