Intestinal polyps (colon polyps) or polyps in colon are small clumps that form in the lining of the organs of the colon. In most cases, this condition is not so dangerous.
However, some clots can develop into colon cancer, which is often fatal if only found in the final stages.
These lumps in the colon have varying amounts and sizes. There are polyps shaped like mushrooms (round stalks), flattened, or round without stalks.
Polyps in Colon Types
Polyps in the colon also have several types, the following of which.
Adenomatous polyps are the most common type of colon polyps. Actually, this type polyps in the intestines have little potential to turn into cancer, but almost all malignant polyps start from adenomatous polyps.
However, the development of this type of colon polyps into cancer usually takes years.
Hyperplastic polyps are also a common type of colonic polyps found in patients. The size is small and the risk of turning into cancer is very low.
When Serrated polyp appears in the lower colon, it is likely that they are a cluster of hyperplastic polyps that grow close together and are rarely malignant.
However, if it is located at the top and is large and flat, polyps can be precancerous (will become cancerous).
Most commonly found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is also referred to as pseudopolyps because this type is not really polyps, but rather is a reaction to chronic inflammation in the colon.
This type of colon polyps is benign and are generally not at risk of becoming colon cancer.
To find out if a polyp lump has the potential to become cancerous, the patient can undergo screening tests such as colonoscopy.
Polyps in Colon Symptoms
Generally intestinal polyps do not cause symptoms, so many people are unaware of the presence of these small lumps. But in certain cases, people with intestinal polyps may experience the following conditions:
Changes in the frequency of defecation
Changes in the frequency of defecation for more than a week, such as constipation or diarrhea, can indicate the presence of large intestinal polyps.
Discoloration of feces
The stool changes color because it mixes with blood, so the color becomes blackish or red striped.
Large polyps can clog part of the intestine, so sufferers will experience cramps and abdominal pain.
Anemia due to iron deficiency
Bleeding due to intestinal polyps can result in iron in the body is widely used, so sufferers can experience anemia.
Polyps in Colon Causes
Intestinal polyps are caused by genetic changes or mutations, which cause cells in the intestine to become abnormal. The more active the growth of polyps, the greater the risk of becoming malignant.
There are several factors that can increase the risk of intestinal polyps, namely:
- 50 years old and above.
- Have family members who have had polyps or colon cancer.
- Suffer from colitis, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease.
- Suffers from uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.
- Obese and lack of exercising.
- Smo**king and frequent consumption of alco**holic beverages.
Some genetic abnormalities can also increase a person’s risk of developing intestinal polyps. The genetic disorders in question are:
#1. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
FAP is a rare disease, in which hundreds or even thousands of polyps grow in the colon. The disease usually begins to appear in adolescence, and will develop into colon cancer if not treated immediately.
#2. Gardner Syndrome
Gardner syndrome is a variant of FAP, where polyps grow along the small intestine and colon. Sufferers of the disease can also have benign tumors in other parts of the body, such as the skin, stomach, or bones.
#3. Serrated polyposis syndrome
This disorder triggers the appearance of many serrated polyps. The polyps appear in the colon in the upper right abdomen and easily develop into cancer.
#4. MYH-associated polyposis (MAP)
This condition is similar to FAP, but is caused by changes in the MYH gene.
#5. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
This condition is characterized by the appearance of tanned patches all over the body, including on the lips, gums, and legs.
#6. Lynch Syndrome
This Lynch syndrome is caused by hereditary factors. The number of polyps in people with this disorder is relatively less, but polyps quickly develop into malignant.