Photosynthesis Definition, Process, Fuctions, and Factors Affecting It – From the name alone, we can estimate that photosynthesis is a process of formation (synthesis) involving light (photo). Well, you must have often heard the term photosynthesis, right?
If you only know a glimpse of photosynthesis, you will think that the process of photosynthesis is a simple process. The process of photosynthesis in plants requires only three main elements, namely carbon dioxide, water, and chlorophyll with the help of sunlight. This process will eventually form glucose and oxygen that will be stored and utilized by plants and the surrounding environment, including us.
But when you research more deeply about the process of photosynthesis, you will find out how complex and interesting a series of processes occur, especially in the leaves of plants.
Photosynthesis is a process of making food carried out by a plant that uses water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) by requiring the help of energy, namely sunlight, so as to produce a food substance and oxygen (O2). Or the other definition of Photosynthesis is a process of processing or also the formation of organic matter is like carbohydrates derived from water and carbon dioxide with the help of sunlight energy.
This process of photosynthesis can be carried out by green plants, algae and also bacteria that have chlorophyll (leaf green substances) during the day. What happens during the day? Because to carry out the process of photosynthesis growth requires the energy of sunlight. The plant can absorb sunlight energy because it has a pigment called chlorophyll, this pigment that gives the green color of the leaves of plants.
Chlorophyll is present in organelles called chloroplasts. Generally the energy from photosynthesis is produced in the leaves, but it can also occur in organs or other parts of plants that have green substances.
The process of photosynthesis in plants starts from carbon dioxide taken up by the mouth of the leaves at night.
Plants also take water from the soil using their roots.
The water is then carried by the transportation system in plants, namely through a network of xylem and phloem.
When sunlight appears, chlorophyll in plants will absorb light to be used as the main energy in the production of glucose.
The glucose produced from the process of photosynthesis will be the basic fuel.
The basic fuel will be processed again into various food substances for plants, such as protein, fat, and so on.
Below we will discuss the function of photosynthesis, such as:
#1. Producing Food
Photosynthesis has the main function, which is to produce food substances in the form of glucose. Glucose is the basic building block of other food substances, such as proteins or fats in plants.
The substance will also become a food source for other living things such as animals and humans. That is why plants are always in the food chain, because plants have the ability to convert light energy into chemical energy.
#2. Cleaning the Air
In the process, photosynthesis will use carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air as a raw material for the process. The result of the synthesis photo process is clean air in the form of oxygen (O2), which can be consumed by other living things. This process also proves the role of plants in maintaining air cleanliness and reducing pollution.
Factors Affecting Photosynthesis
Intensity of light
The maximum rate of photosynthesis when there is a lot of light.
Concentration of carbon dioxide
The more carbon dioxide in the air, the more material plants can use to photosynthesis.
The enzymes that work in photosynthesis can only work at their optimum temperature. Generally the rate of photosynthesis increases along with increasing temperature to the limit of enzymes tolerance.
Lack of water or droughts cause the stomata to close, inhibiting the absorption of carbon dioxide thereby reducing the rate of photosynthesis.
Levels of photosynthetic (results of photosynthesis)
If the levels of photosynthetic such as carbohydrates are reduced, the rate of photosynthesis will rise. When the levels of photosynthetic increase or even saturate, the rate of photosynthesis will decrease.
Research shows that the rate of photosynthesis is much higher in germinating plants than in mature plants. This may be because germinating plants require more energy and food to grow.