Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis: 4 Types, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and When To See A Doctor

Multiple sclerosis is a nervous disorder of the brain, eyes and spine. Multiple sclerosis will cause impaired vision and movement of the body.

When MS autoimmune occurs, the immune system attacks the fat layer that protects nerve fibers (myelin). This causes communication disorders between the brain and the rest of the body. If not treated immediately, multiple sclerosis can cause permanent nerve loss or damage.

Multiple sclerosis is more common in women than men. The severity of the attack varies and has different effects on each sufferer.

Multiple Sclerosis Types

Multiple Sclerosis is a very unexpected disease. Here are 4 types of Multiple Sclerosis:

  • Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS), this type has characteristic symptoms that appear and disappear. The attack will happen suddenly and then disappear again
  • Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis / SPMS (second worsening), long-lasting symptoms
  • Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (major worsening), a new disease appears as it ages. After the first symptoms, the disease instantly gets worse
  • Recurrent progressive multiple sclerosis, symptoms slowly and gradually get worse

Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis may vary depending on the location of the affected nerve. MS autoimmune can cause a series of motion and vision disorders, as well as other symptoms.

Motion disorders

Multiple sclerosis can cause motion disorders such as:

  • Weakness or numbness on certain sides of the body or on the limbs.
  • It’s hard to walk.
  • It’s hard to maintain balance.
  • Sensations such as electrocution occur due to certain neck movements, especially when the sufferer moves the neck forward (Lhermitte’s sign).
  • Tremors or shaking.

Visual impairment

Vision impairments that can occur due to MS autoimmune include:

  • Loss of some or all of the ability to vision. This is usually followed by pain when moving the eyes.
  • Double vision.
  • The view becomes blurred.

In addition to moving disorders and viewing disorders, people with multiple sclerosis can also feel some of the symptoms below:

  • Dizziness.
  • Limp.
  • It’s hard to talk.
  • Pain and tingling in different parts of the body.
  • Disorders of the bladder, intestines, or se**xual organs.

Multiple Sclerosis Causes

The disease is caused by damage to myelin, a protective nerve sheath, by the immune system. Damage to the myelin causes the relationship between the brain and other parts of the body to be disrupted. Because the immune system attacks the myelin sheath, the nerves will be damaged and no longer function. This damage cannot be repaired.

The reason why the immune system attacks are unknown. However, some studies have found that genetic factors, vitamin D deficiency, viral or bacterial infections can have an effect.

Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis

To date, there have been no symptoms, physical findings, or laboratory tests that could definitively diagnose multiple sclerosis. Doctors can use several ways to determine if a patient meets the diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis. The doctor should find out if there are any of the following.

  • Evidence of damage to at least two separate areas of the central nervous system that includes the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve
  • Evidence that the damage occurs at different times
  • Get rid of all other possible diagnoses

The doctor may also recommend several supporting examinations, which include neurological examinations (eye movements, body reflexes, and hand and foot coordination skills), MRI, and cerebrospinal fluid examination.

Multiple Sclerosis Treatment

Multiple sclerosis can be dealt with with several therapies and surgeries.

MS has not been cured. Existing therapies can only accelerate recovery after an attack, slow down the progression of the disease, and alleviate the symptoms that arise. For mild symptoms, there is sometimes no need for therapy.

MS therapy is divided into three, namely therapy in the event of an attack, long-term therapy to slow the progressiveity of the disease, and therapy to relieve symptoms.

Therapy for Attacks

  • Corticosteroids: suppress the activity of immune cells so as to reduce inflammation that occurs in nerve cells. The options are oral prednisone (drinking) and injection of methylprednisolone.
  • Plasmapheresis: is carried out by removing the plasma (the liquid part of the blood) from the body and separating it with red blood cells. Red blood cells are then mixed with albumin (protein) and put back into the body. The purpose of this action is to ‘wash’ the immune cells that are in the plasma. This action is carried out when new symptoms appear, severe, and do not improve with the administration of corticosteroids.

Therapies to Modify the Course of Disease

Some types of drugs used are beta interferon, fingolimod, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, teriflunomide, alemtuzumab.

Therapy to Relieve Symptoms

  • Physiotherapy: to relax stiff muscles, strengthen weak muscles, and train patients to use appropriate aids, to facilitate daily activities such as walking, if there is weakness of the legs or impaired coordination or balance.
  • Muscle relaxants: for muscle pain and tension / stiffness. Examples of drugs: baclofen, tizanidine.
  • Remedies to relieve fatigue.
  • Medications for other symptoms (depression, pain, se**xual dysfunction, urination and bowel movement disorder, adjusted according to existing symptoms).

Multiple Sclerosis Prevention

Prevention that can be done is to meet the needs of vitamin D and carry out a healthy lifestyle.

When to see a doctor?

If you experience blurred or double vision, please contact your doctor immediately for further treatment.

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Multiple Sclerosis: 4 Types, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and When To See A Doctor

Post in | Last updated: January 31st, 2021 |