Definition of mitral valve stenosis.
Narrowing of the mitral valve or in medical terms is called mitral valve stenosis is a narrowing of the mitral valve conditions of the heart. This condition causes the heart’s left atria pump harder to circulate blood to the left ventricle.
In the left ventricle cannot drain the blood to run out well from there, the blood will return to the right side of the heart, causing fluid buildup in the lungs. Narrowing of the mitral valve, together with mitral valve regurgitation and mitral valve prolapse are the three most common of mitral valve diseases.
Causes of Mitral valve stenosis.
Most cases of mitral valve stenosis caused by rheumatic fever. In North America and Western Europe, these abnormalities often found in parents who never suffered from rheumatic fever while children and are not given antibiotics.
Rheumatic fever commonly can cause mitral valve stenosis in children up to older people. If caused by rheumatic fever, the part of the mitral valve is joined together.
Mitral valve stenosis can also be caused by congenital abnormalities at birth. When a baby is born with this disorder, then most likely cannot live more than 2 years, unless it is already undergoing surgery.
In addition, the mitral valve stenosis can also be caused by myxoma, a benign tumor in the left atrium or the presence of blood clots that clog the flow of blood as it passes through the mitral valve.
The Main Symptoms Of Mitral Valve Stenosis.
Many patients with mitral valve stenosis that do not feel the symptoms for several years. But along with the deteriorating conditions, patients can experience:
- Short Breath.
- Suddenly can’t stand physical activity.
- Dizziness or fainting.
- Chest pain.
- A very severe headache.
- Symptoms of a stroke.
- Hemoptysis or bleeding cough.
- Mitral facies due to cyanosis or blood less oxygen.
Who needs to be met and the expected results.
At the early stage, mitral valve stenosis is usually not showed any symptoms. Often, this condition is not detected for several years or until complications arise. There are cases where the disease is found accidentally when patients undergo diagnostic tests to check for other diseases.
Early signs of mitral valve stenosis is the heart murmur, abnormal sounds after the heartbeat, which can be heard through a stethoscope. If this condition is detected when the physical examination, the doctor will do tests and additional diagnostic procedures to identify the cause and deal with the heart disorders that also cause these symptoms.
Patients who allegedly suffered from mitral valve stenosis undergo a complete physical examination. The patient’s blood pressure will be measured and the pulse will be checked. Medical record and patient lifestyle will be discussed. They will be asked, whether they have had rheumatic fever or have heart problems, including endocarditis, congenital heart abnormalities, or atrial fibrillation.
Some diagnostic tests to diagnose mitral valve stenosis:
- Chest X-rays.
- An Echocardiogram tests.
To improve temporary symptoms can be given diuretics, beta blockers, digoxin, or non dihydropyridine CCB. The administration of anticoagulants is aimed at an INR 2-3 target for both new and paroxysmal onset AF.
For patients without AF, administering anticoagulant if there is a history of systemic embolism or the presence of thrombus in the left atrium..
Administering anticoagulants also may be given when there is suspicion of thrombus namely transesophageal echocardiography when dense spontaneous echocardiographic contrast or left atrial enlargement (M-mode diameter> 50 mm or LA volume> 60 ml / m2) is obtained. . Administering anticoagulants NOAC is not recommended.
The decision for mitral stenosis surgery.
If you have mitral stenosis, you need to discuss it with Your cardiologist to determine whether surgery is required and when, and then you can choose a method of surgery that best suits your needs. With early diagnosis and treatment are maximal, in general individual with mitral stenosis can live normally.
Make a decision to undergo mitral stenosis surgery needs to be coupled with the right timing and the appropriate case. If you and your doctor have determined the time for the procedure, you will then determine the 3 main options for your mitral stenosis surgery.
A wide selection of the most recommended to not recommended are:
- Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvulotomy (PMBV).
- Mitral Commissurotomy.
- Mitral valve replacement.
Not all patients with mitral stenosis can be a suitable candidate for such choices.