Mental Health
Mental Health

Mental Health: Definition, and 3 Disorder Types and Causes

Mental health definition

Mental health is affected by events in life that leave a huge impact on a person’s personality and behavior. These events can be domestic violence, child abuse, or long-term severe stress.

If mental health is impaired, then there is a mental disorder or mental illness. Mental disorders can change the way a person handles stress, connect with others, make choices, and trigger a desire to self-harm.

Some common types of mental disorders are found, including depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and psychosis. Some mental illnesses only occur in certain types of sufferers, such as postpartum depression only attacks the mother after childbirth.

Mental health and mental health disorders

Mental health is both personal and individual. This determines how a person can relate to others, handle stress and make choices. Mental health is our way of thinking, feeling and acting.

Mental health disorders are a series of conditions that impact mental health. Therefore, it is a condition that interferes with our mood, behavior, thoughts or the way one interacts with others.

These conditions can be mild, moderate, and severe; and it is determined based on how far it impacts a person’s daily functioning. Examples are depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. With the right support and care, people can recover from and stabilize their mental health condition so that they can lead a healthy and fulfilling life.

Mental health disorder types

There are several types of mental health problems and the following are the most common types of conditions.


Stress is a situation when a person experiences very severe stress, both emotionally and mentally.

A stressed person will usually seem agitated, anxious, and irritable. Stress can also interfere with concentration, reduce motivation, and in certain cases, trigger depression.

Stress can not only affect the psychology of the sufferer, but it can also impact the way they behave and their physical health.

The following is an example of the impact of stress on a person’s behavior:

  • Become a loner and reluctant to interact with others.
  • Reluctance to eat or overeat.
  • Getting angry, and sometimes anger  is hard-to-control.
  • Become a smo**ker or smo**king excessively.
  • Consuming excessive alco**hol.
  • Misuse of nar**cotic drugs.

The following are health problems that can arise due to stress:

  • Sleep disturbances
  • Tired
  • Headaches
  • Abdominal pain
  • Chest pain
  • Muscle pain or strain
  • Decreased se**xual arousal
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Heart problems

Many factors can cause a person to experience stress, some of which are financial problems, social relationships, or demands of the work. To cope with stress, the main key is to identify the root cause and find a solution.

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Anxiety Disorders

Mental Health Disorder

Anxiety disorder is a psychological condition when a person experiences constant excessive anxiety and it is difficult to control, thus adversely affecting his daily life.

For some normal people, anxiety usually arises on certain occasions, such as when facing an exam at school or a job interview. But in people with anxiety disorders, this anxiety often arises in every situation. That’s why people who experience this condition will find it difficult to feel relaxed from time to time.

In addition to anxiety or excessive fear, other psychological symptoms that can appear in sufferers of anxiety disorders are reduced confidence, being irritable, stressed, difficult to concentrate, and being a loner.

Meanwhile, physical symptoms that may accompany anxiety disorder problems include:

  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Body shaking
  • Excessive sweating
  • Muscles become tense
  • Heart palpitations
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tired
  • Abdominal or head pain
  • Dizziness
  • Dry mouth
  • Tingling.

Although the cause of anxiety disorder is not yet known for certain, several factors are thought to trigger the appearance of the condition. Among them are trauma from intimidation, harassment, and violence in the outside environment or family.

Other risk factors are prolonged stress, genes inherited from the elderly, and imbalances of the serotonin and noradrenaline hormones in the brain that function to control mood. Anxiety disorders can also be triggered by alco**hol and drug abuse.

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In fact, anxiety disorders can be overcome without the help of a doctor through several ways, such as eating highly nutritious foods, getting enough sleep, reducing your intake of caffeine, alco**holic beverages, or other sedatives, not smo**king, regular exercise, and performing simple relaxation methods, such as yoga or meditation.

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Depression is a mood disorder that causes sufferers to constantly feel sad. Unlike regular sadness that generally lasts for several days, feelings of sadness in depression can last up to weeks or months.

In addition to affecting feelings or emotions, depression can also cause physical problems, change the way of thinking, and change the way sufferers behave. It is not uncommon for people with depression to experience normal daily activities. Even in certain cases, they can self-harm and attempt sui**cide.

The following are some of the psychological symptoms of someone experiencing depression:

  • Loss of interest or motivation to do something.
  • Constantly feeling sad, even constantly crying.
  • Feeling very guilty and worried is excessive.
  • Can’t enjoy life because of loss of confidence.
  • It’s hard to make decisions and irritable.
  • Not indifferent to others.
  • Have thoughts of self-harm or sui**cide.

The following are the impacts of depression on physical health that may occur:

  • Sleep disturbances and a weak body.
  • Talk or move slower.
  • Changes in the menstrual cycle in women.
  • Libi**do drops and constipation appears.
  • Appetite drops or increases drastically.
  • Feeling pain without cause.

There are various things that can cause depression, ranging from stressful life events, losing a loved one, feeling lonely, to having a fragile personality to depress.

In addition, a person’s depression can also be caused by suffering from severe and prolonged illnesses, such as cancer and heart problems, severe head injuries, effects from excessive consumption of alco**holic beverages and illegal drugs, up to the consequences of genetic factors in the family.

It is recommended to consult a doctor if you feel the symptoms of depression for more than two weeks and do not subside. Especially if the symptoms of depression are to interfere with the educational process, employment, and social relationships,

The treatment of depression by the doctor will be adjusted to the severity of the depression suffered by each patient. This form of treatment can be consulting therapy, administration of antidepressant drugs, or a combination of both.

Mental Health Disorder Causes

It is important to know that good mental health relies on a complex balance of factors and some elements that affect mental health disorders.

Here are some factors that can cause mental health disorders:

Social and economic pressures

In 2015, a study of 903 families in Iran was conducted to identify several socioeconomic causes of mental health conditions, including poverty and living in large suburbs.

Having limited financial means or belong to marginalized or persecuted ethnic groups can increase the risk of mental health disorders.

Modified factors for mental health disorders

There are also factors that can be modified for mental health disorders, namely socioeconomic conditions, the level of social engagement in a person, education, and the quality of the home.

Factors that cannot be modified

Meanwhile, for unmodified factors, namely gender, age, and ethnicity.

Biological Factors

NIMH suggests that genetic family history can increase the likelihood of mental health conditions because certain genes and gene variants put a person at higher risk.

Having genes associated with mental health disorders, such as depression or schizophrenia does not guarantee that a condition will develop.

Similarly, people without associated genes or family history with mental illness can still have mental health problems.

Last Updated on January 1, 2022 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team