Lyme disease is a disease caused by bacterial infections transmitted by tick bites. The most common symptom of Lyme disease is a reddish rash on the skin with characteristic.
Lyme disease can develop increasingly severe and cause serious complications. Therefore, treatment should be done as soon as possible after symptoms of Lyme disease arise.
In some regions of the Americas, Lyme disease is not only transmitted by a tick of Ixodes scapularis, but also by rats and ticks Ixodes Paficius.
In Europe, the other Borrelia species B. garinii is also able to cause diseases with similar symptoms such as Lyme disease
In the Asian region, Lyme disease is caused by B. Afzelii through the mediation of I. Persulcatus.
Overall, it can be said that the distribution of the disease is very widespread and transmitted to humans via the Borrelia and different types of ticks, depending on the region.
Causes of Lyme disease
Lyme disease is caused by a bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi or Borrelia b. A person can be attacked by Lyme disease if bitten by an Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes Pristionchus-infected tick.
In most cases, infected tick should be attached to the human body for at least 36 – 48 hours. So, if you realize that a bug is stuck to the body, remove it immediately to prevent infection.
There are several factors that can increase the risk of one’s Lyme disease, namely:
- Frequent outdoor activities, such as camping, animal hunting and mountaineering
- Frequently dressed in open, so the tick is easily causing Lyme disease
- Do not immediately remove ticks from the skin or do not remove the tick from the skin in the right way.
Lyme disease Symptoms
Lyme disease has three stages, the first localized stage, the early stage of dissemination, and the final stage of dissemination. Lyme disease symptoms differ at each stage.
Early Dissemination Stage
At this stage, symptoms usually start to look 1 or 2 weeks after the tick bite. One of the earliest symptoms is a rash shaped like a target (bull’s-eye rash), which is a sign that the bacteria are split up in the blood.
This rash called erythema migrans occurs at the location of the bite, looking like a red dot surrounded by a clean area, which the edges return to red. The rash is usually neither painful nor itchy, but feels warm when touched. Generally, this rash will disappear on its own within 4 weeks.
Early Dissemination Stage
This Stadium took place several weeks after the tick bite. At this stage, bacteria have begun to spread throughout the body, causing flu-like symptoms, including:
- Enlarged lymph nodes.
- Sore throat.
- Impaired vision.
- Muscle pain.
In addition to flu-like symptoms, at this stage, the people with will show symptoms, such as:
- The rash appears somewhere other than a tick bite location.
- Nerve symptoms such as tingling and numbness.
- Bell’s palsy.
Final dissemination stage
This stage occurs if the infection is not handled in stages 1 and 2. This stage 3 can appear in a matter of weeks, months, or even years after a tick bite. This Stadium has characteristics, such as:
- Severe headache.
- Arthritis in one or more large joints.
- Heart rhythm Disorders.
- Brain disorders such as encephalopathy.
- Short-term memory loss.
- Disruption in conversation involved.
- Difficulty concentration.
- Mental disorders.
- Numbness in the legs or hands.
Diagnosis of Lyme disease
The doctor will ask for a history of being bitten by a tick. It is quite difficult to determine the diagnosis of Lyme disease because its symptoms vary and are similar to other diseases. However, the typical symptom of Lyme disease, namely erythema migrans, can help diagnose Lyme disease. Usually this rash will widen in a few days.
Lyme Disease test
Blood screening in the laboratory can also help. The examination of ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is performed to look for antibodies against the bacteria Borrelia sp.
However, this examination is not effective if it is done too early, as generally antibodies have not been formed. If ELISA’s examination shows positive results, a Western blot test will be conducted to confirm the diagnosis.
Lyme disease Treatment
Handling is done using antibiotics. Treatment will be quicker if it starts early. Antibiotics can be either oral (drinking) or intravenously (injectable).
Read more about How To Cure Lyme Disease
Lyme Disease prevention
The most effective way to prevent Lyme disease is to avoid tick bites. This can be attempted by:
- Protects the body with long clothes, shoes, hats, and glasses.
- Use anti-mosquito lotion.
- Keep your garden tick free.
- Check yourself and your child for tick after spending time in the grass area. Even if your pet needs to be checked.
Thank you very much for reading Lyme Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Test, Treatment, and Prevention, hopefully useful.