Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine

Internal Medicine: Definition, 3 Duties, Subspecialties, and The Diseases Treated

In addition to general practitioners and pediatrics, there is one more doctor who is quite widely found in almost every hospital, namely internal medicine doctor or internist.

Have you ever been to an internal medicine doctor without knowing the health problems that are being experienced?

If so, you’re not alone. Because, the term “internal disease” is considered very broadly by the public that many directly go to the internal medicine doctor without a second thought.

In fact, not every disease involving internal organs can be handled by internal medicine doctors.

What is Internal Medicine?

Internist doctor or internal medicine doctor is a doctor who handles various complaints and health problems in older persons and elderly patients. The treatment includes all internal organs.

The doctor’s degree in internal medicine is given to doctors who have completed the Internal Medicine Specialization Education Program. Internal medicine is a medical science that treats older persons and the elderly, covering non-surgical diseases, covering almost the entire human body with a variety of complaints and symptoms of the disease.

Duties of a specialist internal medicine

  • Diagnose and treat diseases in older persons and the elderly. Both the disease is already acute and chronic, which is done by non-surgical measures.
  • Provide recommendations for treatment of diseases suffered by older persons and elderly patients.
  • Provide understanding about health in general to patients, including how to maintain health and prevent against diseases.

Internal medicine subspecialties and The Diseases treated by internal medicine

Clinically, the field of internal disease science is divided into several subspecialties. Each subspecialist doctor (Consultant) of internal diseases will handle the disease in accordance with their scientific fields, namely:

Allergy and Immunology

The doctor of the disease in the subspecialist or consultant allergy and immunology handles various diseases due to allergies and disorders of the immune system. Examples of the disease are:

  • Asthma.
  • Allergic rhinitis.
  • Urticaria or hives
  • Angioedema.
  • Vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels).


Disease specialists in cardiovascular consultants are tasked with treating heart and vascular diseases in older persons. Examples of the disease are:

  • Heart failure.
  • Coronary heart disease.
  • Heart attack.
  • Heart rhythm disorders or arrhythmias.
  • Weak heart (cardiomyopathy).
  • Cardiogenic shock.
  • Heart valve disease.
  • Peripheral artery disease.

Metabolic Endocrinology

Doctors in metabolic and endocrinology consultants deal with a variety of problems related to the body’s glandular and hormonal systems as well as metabolic abnormalities.

Diseases treated by these consultants include hormonal disorders, diabetes mellitus, adrenal gland disease, hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, thyroid disorders, mumps, and obesity related to hormonal disorders or metabolic disorders.


Internal diseases related to disorders of the digestive system and liver organs.


Deep diseases related to the age of a person. Usually this disease is a medical disorder that occurs due to the aging process.

Kidney Hypertension.

This internal disease is related to disorders of the kidney organs and high blood pressure.

Medical Oncology Hematology.

This disease is related to the presence of disorders or abnormalities in the blood. Usually the disease is related to cancer.


This internal disease is caused by other diseases and is usually further exacerbated by the presence of mental disorders in people with disabilities.


This disorder is related to the lungs. Clinical skills that can be done by internal medicine specialists in this condition, namely pulmonary function tests, fluid retrieval in the pulmonary cavity (with / without ultrasound guidance), oxygen therapy, steam therapy, to interpretation of chest X-rays.


This is related to non-surgical evaluation and treatment such as rheumatic diseases of the body’s connective tissues, such as joints. Examples of diseases such as osteoporosis, lupus, and so on.

Tropical-Infectious Diseases

Focus on dealing with infectious diseases, both caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites and provide preventive medicine.

Some of the diseases that this specialists treat are sepsis, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Chikungunya, rubella, toxoplasmosis, rabies, malaria, worm infections, filariasis, systemic yeast infections, typhoid fever, tetanus, anthrax, food poisoning due to infection, and so on.

Last Updated on December 29, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team