Mononucleosis is an infectious disease caused by an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The spread of EBV occurs through body fluids, especially saliva.
Mononucleosis or glandular fever can be experienced by anyone, but the disease is more common in adolescents. Mononucleosis is not a serious disease. However, if left unchecked, the symptoms can worsen and hinder daily activities.
Infectious mononucleosis caused by
The main cause of mononucleosis is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The spread of the virus can occur through direct contact with saliva from an infected person. The virus can also be transmitted through other body fluids, such as phlegm, blood, spe**rm, or vagi**nal fluids.
Some activities that can increase the risk of spreading mononucleosis are:
- Coughing or sneezing
- Se**xual inter**course
- Sharing with cutlery or drinking
- Blood transfusion
- Organ transplant
In addition to EBV, mononucleosis can also be caused by other types of viruses, such as Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Toxoplasma, HIV, Rubella, Hepatitis (A, B, or C), and Adenovirus. However, mononucleosis due to these viruses is less common when compared to EBV.
There are several groups of people who are susceptible to mononucleosis, namely:
- Young older aged 15-30 years, especially those who often have direct contact with many people and are busy with the move
- Patients taking immunosuppressive drugs
- Doctors and nurses.
Infectious Mononucleosis Symptoms
Symptoms experienced are almost the same as flu symptoms in general, namely fever, chills, muscle and joint pain, weakness, fatigue, no appetite, throat pain, enlarged lymph nodes that feel pain, enlarged tonsils, and headache. In addition, it can also be accompanied by a rash in the form of red spots and enlargement of the liver and spleen. If enlargement of the liver and spleen occurs, jaundice can also appear, which changes the skin to yellow.
Infectious Mononucleosis Diagnosis
A physical examination shows signs and symptoms such as enlarged tonsils, rashes on the skin, enlarged lymph nodes, and enlargement of the liver or spleen. Supporting examinations that can be checked are complete blood tests that include the calculation of white blood cell count and type count, as well as antibody examination (monospot test) that can detect the presence of antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus.
Infectious Mononucleosis Treatment
What are my treatment options for mononucleosis?
The information provided is not a substitute for medical advice. Always consult your doctor.
The goal of mononucleosis treatment is to relieve the symptoms of the disease. Doctors may prescribe steroid medications (prednisone) if symptoms get worse.
Some things you can do to relieve the symptoms of mononucleosis are:
- Drink plenty of water
- Gargle with warm salt water to relieve sore throat
- Enough rest
- Use acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve pain and fever.
You should also avoid exercise if you have swelling of the spleen to prevent the risk of a ruptured spleen.
What are some lifestyle changes or home remedies to treat mononucleosis?
Lifestyle changes and home remedies that can help you cope with glandular fever are:
- Rest and drink enough water to maintain fluid balance in the body.
- Ask your doctor about all medications you take, either with or without a prescription.
- Tell your doctor if you experience pain in your abdomen or shoulders.
- Try to avoid kis**sing or using the same cutlery as an infected person.
- Wash your hands as often as possible.
- Don’t exercise until it’s completely healed.
- Taking over-the-counter pain medication in pharmacies, such as ibuprofen or paracetamol.
Healthy people who have had a history of the disease can carry and transmit the infection periodically. Even so don’t worry, mononucleosis is a preventable disease.
A person who has been infected with EBV will form antibodies to fight this infection. People usually get this disease only once in life.
- Image: Ed Uthman, MD., CC BY 2.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
- Video: Medical Centric
Last Updated on January 18, 2022 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team