Infectious Disease Definition
Infectious Diseases are diseases also called infections; which can be transmitted to humans caused by biological agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites; not due to physical or chemical factors; transmission can be directly or through the media or vectors and disease-carrying animals.
Infectious diseases are still a major public health problem that can cause high pain, death, and disability so it is necessary to conduct countermeasures through effective and efficient prevention, control, and eradication efforts.
Infectious diseases can be an epidemic; is the occurrence of infectious diseases in the community whose number of sufferers increases significantly more than the usual conditions at certain times and regions and can cause havoc. COVID-19 caused by the transmission and infection of SARSCoV2 Virus is an example of an infectious disease that has become an outbreak and even a pandemic that has hit almost all corners of the world.
Infectious Disease Examples
Pulmonary TB Disease
Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is transmitted through the sputum splash of the sufferer. This disease is often the cause of death in the community, so the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) make Pulmonary TB disease as one of the diseases that become a target to be lowered.
Flu is a virus-induced disease that continues to mutate, making it difficult for the immune system to detect. Common symptoms of flu are muscle pain, coughing, sneezing, nasal congestion, headache, fatigue, and fever.
Although classified as an infectious disease, currently the flu is considered harmless. However, what to watch out for is the mutation of flu-causing viruses that then lead to far more dangerous diseases, such as bird flu.
Transmission: Directly when a splash of water from the mouth (droplet) hits another person when sneezing, coughing, or talking. Indirect transmission occurs when you touch a surface or object that has been contaminated with the flu virus, then your hands touch your mouth and nose so that the virus enters the body.
- Keep your distance from people suffering from flu.
- Diligently clean hands with soap or hand sanitizer.
- People with the flu should wear a mask so as not to spread the virus to others.
- Practice the correct ethics of coughing and sneezing, which is to cover the mouth and nose with elbows when coughing or sneezing.
- Maintain endurance so that it is not easily infected with flu viruses.
HIV/AIDS and STIs
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a collection of symptoms of the disease due to decreased immunity due to HIV virus (Human Immuno Deficiency Virus).
The presence of HIV/AIDS sufferers is like an iceberg phenomenon, where the number of patients found is much less than the infected population. The condition is closely related to the rapidly increasing mobility of the population, accompanied by an increase in unsafe se**xual behavior and the widespread use of injecting drugs.
Infectious Disease Symptoms
Each infectious disease has its own specific signs and symptoms. However, there are some common symptoms that are common in people with infectious diseases. The common signs and symptoms in some infectious diseases are:
- Muscle pain;
Infectious Disease Cause
There are several things that cause the emergence of infectious diseases. The causes of infectious diseases are as follows:
- Bacteria. This single-cell organism is responsible for infectious diseases such as laryngitis, urinary tract infections, and tuberculosis.
- Virus. With a smaller size than bacteria, the virus causes many diseases ranging from the common cold to AIDS.
- Fungi. Many skin diseases, such as ringworm and athlete’s feet, are caused by fungi. Other types of fungi can infect your lungs or nervous system.
- Parasite. Malaria is caused by a small parasite transmitted by mosquito bites. Other parasites can be transmitted to humans from animal excrement.