Children are required to perform DTP vaccines. Probably most of you do not know what is a DTP vaccine. DTP vaccine is a combined vaccine that is beneficial to prevent the three diseases at once, namely diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis disease.
Explanation of DTP
Diphtheria disease is caused by toxins derived from germ Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Symptoms of diphtheria disease begin with colds, pain when swallowing food or drink, mild fever accompanied by shivering body. After that, poison derived from germs will form a thick membrane in the throat or behind the nose, causing the sufferer to become difficult to swallow or breathe.
Learn more about Typical symptoms of diphtheria disease
Further, that is tetanus disease. Tetanus, commonly known as mouth spasms, it is one of the most dangerous diseases, because Tetanus disease affects the body’s muscles and nerves.
Tetanus disease can happen to a person when a Clostridium tetani bacteria found in the soil enters the body through an open wound. If the germ enters, then the germs will produce neurotoxins or toxins, that attack the nervous system of the human body, because the poison will enter the body through the blood and lymph fluid then spread throughout the human body.
Last is pertussis. Pertussis is a very dangerous and easily contagious disease. The disease is caused by the Bordetella Pertussis bacteria. Early symptoms of pertussis disease are almost identical with diphtheria, prefixed with colds, sneezing, nasal congestion and mild fever. After 2 weeks, then the cough will get worse.
All children around the world should get diphtheria vaccinations. Diphtheria epidemics in some countries reflect inadequate vaccination coverage, and have demonstrated the importance of maintaining a high level of coverage in child immunization programs.
Since the diphtheria toxoid is almost exclusively available in a fixed combination with other antigens, it is required immunization program to align the immunization schedule between diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP). In infant vaccinations, vaccines containing DTP often include other antigens scheduled at the same time, such as Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and hepatitis B, to reduce the amount of injection.
DTP Vaccine Schedule
- Basic DTP vaccination is given 3 times, when the baby is 2-4-6 months old.
- The booster is done twice, which is when the child is 18-24 months old, and at the age of 5 years.
- Boosters can be done again at the age of 10 and 18 years, but the type of vaccine is different, just tetanus and diphtheria (Td).
- Tetanus boosters can be done twice in women at a fertile age. It is advisable to do so when preparing for marriage, then one month later.
- If missed, can be done in the first trimester (TM) pregnancy, then in TM 3 to avoid the occurrence of tetanus in newborns due to the process of childbirth that is less sterile. If the mother already has immunity against the tetanus, the baby who is born also gets that immunity.
DTP Vaccine Dosage
- The dose of the lower case (d) is 1/10 of the upper case dose (D).
- At the age of seven and above, given a small dose because of the possibility of greater hypersensitivity reactions.
- For tetanus still used dose T, at any age
Vaccine administration should be delayed in children suffering from severe acute fever disease; Given by caution in thrombocytopenia patients or bleeding disorders due to bleeding can occur after intramuscular injection. This vaccine is not aimed at older persons, and there are no data for vaccine administration on pregnancy and lactation.
The Vaccinating in children receiving immunosuppressive therapy or patients with immune deficiency can cause an unoptimal immune response.
Hypersensitivity to the vaccine component; History of encephalopathy with unknown etiology for 7 days after administration of vaccines containing pertussis.
- Reactions to the site of injection (pain, redness, swelling),
- Crying for more than 3 hours,
- Lack of appetite,
After administering the DTP vaccine, what can happen to babies?
Reactions that can occur immediately after DTP vaccination include high fever, fussiness, at the injection site arises redness, pain and swelling, which will disappear within 2 days.
Parents or caregivers are encouraged to give a drink more (breast milk or water), if fever, wear a thin clothing, a painful injection can be compressed with cold water, if fever, give paracetamol 15 mg/KGBW every 3-4 hours when necessary, maximum 6 times in 24 hours, may take a bath or simply wiped with warm water.
If the reactions are heavy and settled, or if the parent is worried, bring a baby or child to the doctor.