Clostridium Botulinum Disease: Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Complication, and Treatment – Botulism is a serious poisoning condition caused by toxins from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The toxins produced by these bacteria are known as one of the most powerful toxins. Therefore, although relatively rare, botulism includes serious, life-threatening conditions.
The toxins produced by these bacteria attack the nervous system of the brain, spine, and other nerves, and can cause paralysis of the muscles. When not treated immediately, paralysis will spread to the muscles that control breathing.
Clostridium Botulinum Disease Causes
Botulism is caused by toxins from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be found in soil, dust, rivers, as well as the seabed. In fact, these bacteria are harmless when in normal environmental conditions. However, these bacteria release toxins when they lack oxygen. For example, when in mud and immobile soil, in closed cans, bottles, or in the human body.
Each type of botulism is triggered by different factors, as described below:
This type of botulism occurs due to the consumption of low-acid canned foods that are not well packaged, be it vegetables, fruits, or fish and meat. C. Botulinum bacteria contained in packaged foods can interfere with nerve function and cause paralysis.
This botulism occurs when the bacterium C. Botulinum enters the wound, which often occurs in people with NAP**ZA abuse. Botulism-triggering bacteria can contaminate illicit substances, such as he**roin. When NAP**ZA enters the body, the bacteria in the substance will multiply and produce toxins.
Over the past decade, cases of wound botulism have increased in injectable he**roin abuse. In some cases, wound botulism also occurs when the inside of the nose is damaged by inhaling co**caine.
Infant botulism occurs when the baby consumes food containing spores of the bacterium C. Botulinum, or when the baby is exposed to soil contaminated with these bacteria. Spores of bacteria ingested by the baby will multiply and release toxins in the digestive tract. However, these bacterial spores are not harmful to babies above 1 year old, because their bodies have built up immunity to fight bacteria.
Clostridium Botulinum Disease Risk Factors
There are at least some factors that can trigger botulism, for example:
- Abuse of NAP**ZA, the bacteria that cause botulism can contaminate substances contained in drugs.
- Often consume canned foods low in acid, especially when not packed properly.
- Often exposed to soil, or have work where the environmental conditions are grounded.
Clostridium Botulinum Disease Symptoms
Symptoms of botulism begin 18–24 hours after eating poisonous food. Various symptoms that can arise are:
- Impaired vision
- Inability to swallow
- Difficulty speaking
- Signs of paralysis (convulsions, weakness, paralyzed muscles) progressive walking
- Respiratory muscle paralysis
- Cardiac arrest.
Clostridium Botulinum Disease Diagnosis
Diagnosis of botulism is determined through an examination in patients with a history of exposure to toxins and the presence of typical clinical symptoms. Patients may experience problems due to a history of eating canned food and due to complaints of various nervous disorders such as diplopia, blurred vision, dry mouth, and difficulty swallowing.
Clostridium Botulinum Disease Complication
Botulism that is not immediately addressed can lead to various complications. Starting from the broken body muscle problem that can cause a breath stop. This condition that can lead to death.
Clostridium Botulinum Disease Treatment
Botulism sufferers need to be hospitalized. This treatment aims to neutralize toxins, so that the body’s function can return to normal. Please note that botulism treatment will not cure muscle and respiratory paralysis that may already occur, but to keep the condition from getting worse. A few weeks or months after treatment, generally the paralysis that arises before treatment will disappear and the body returns to normal.
Here are some treatments that doctors generally do:
In people with botulism food poisoning or wound botulism, usually the doctor will inject antitoxins to reduce the risk of complications. Antitoxins with the immune content of globulin botulism are usually given to treat botulism in babies.
Administration of antibiotics.
This action is carried out only for people with wound botulism, because antibiotics can accelerate the release of toxins.
This device will be installed by the doctor if the sufferer has difficulty breathing.