Bone marrow aspiration
Bone Marrow Aspiration

Bone Marrow Aspiration: Indications, Preparation, and 6 Steps

Bone marrow is a soft tissue in the bone that helps to form blood cells. It is found in the most empty part of the bone. Bone marrow aspiration is the removal of small amounts of this tissue in liquid form for examination.

Bone marrow aspiration is not the same as bone marrow biopsy. Biopsy removes bone terraces for examination.

Bone marrow aspiration is a method of diagnosis aimed at observing the condition of the contents of the bone marrow, in order to detect a number of blood disorders, such as leukemia or lymphoma.

The bone marrow contains the stem cells, i.e. The initial cell before experiencing development and changes to the red blood cells, white blood cells and the blood (platelets) that are mature. When the blood cells derived from the stem cells are mature, the blood cells will come out of the bone marrow and circulate throughout the body.

Bone marrow is taken as a sample to be aware of the stem cell condition. With the sampling of bone marrow content, various blood disorder diseases can be diagnosed accurately.

Read also: 7 Osteoporosis Natural Treatments

When should I do a bone marrow aspiration?

When you experience a sign of blood disorder, which can be a decrease in the number of one or three blood cells, or even increased in number. It is evident from the symptoms, or the initial examination of complete blood count and smear of peripheral blood cells. Bone marrow aspiration can also be performed to see infections and spread of cancer to the bone marrow. In addition, Bone marrow aspiration is performed before you undergo a bone marrow transplant or stem cell.

Read also: High WBC Count: The Causes and How to lower it in infants.

What diseases can be diagnosed through bone marrow aspiration?

  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)
  • Mielofibroza
  • Polycythemia
  • Haemochromatosis
  • Gaucher’s disease
  • Renal amyloidosis
  • Blood cancers, such as leukemia or multiple myeloma
  • Lymph Cancer (lymphoma)
  • Fungal infections
  • Tuberculosis

Indications of bone marrow aspiration

Indications for bone marrow aspiration are largely hematological or oncology disease, though sometimes also indicated for the diagnosis of infectious diseases as well.

Hematology and Oncology

A bone marrow examination, which is a combination of aspiration and bone marrow biopsy is a way to diagnose hematological disorders such as diagnosis, level and monitor therapy for lymphoproliferative disorders such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloproliferative disorders, Myelodisplasia syndrome and multiple myeloma. Furthermore, this bone marrow test can be done to evaluate Cytopenia, thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, anemia and iron content that can be determined. 

Preparation of bone marrow aspiration

There is no specific preparation for patients who will undergo bone marrow aspiration. Inform the doctor as you are taking certain medications and as if you suffer from allergies. If needed, the doctor will ask the patient to stop while taking the drugs.

If you become anxious when you are going to undergo a procedure, tell your doctor to be able to help you resolve the anxiety. If needed, the Doctor is able to provide sedatives to sustain the patient always calm.

During preparation, the doctor will monitor the blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature of the patient, to consider the patient in a prepared condition for the procedure.

How tests are done?

Bone marrow aspiration procedures
Bone Marrow Aspiration Procedures ( [CC BY-SA 4.0 (])

The aspiration of bone marrow can be done at the health care provider’s office or in hospitals. Bone marrow is removed from your pelvic bones or breasts. Sometimes, other bones are selected.

Bone marrow is removed in the following steps:

  • If needed, you are given medication to help you relax.
  • Supplier cleans skin and inject numbing drugs to bone surfaces and area.
  • Special needles are inserted in the bones. The needle has a tube attached to it, which produces the suction. A small sample of bone marrow fluid flowed into the tube.
  • The needle removed.
  • The pressure and then the wrapping is used on the skin.
  • The liquid marrow is sent to the lab and is examined under microscope.

Thank you very much for reading Bone Marrow Aspiration: Indications, Preparation, and 6 Steps, hopefully useful.

Last Updated on May 27, 2020 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team

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