In bipolar disorder, also called bipolarity, manic depression, or manic-depressive psychosis, mood swings are disproportionate in intensity and duration. The phases of excitement and depression that characterize them vary from one person to another
Is it normal to have ups and downs?
The changes of mood cannot always be explained by the influence of external factors in affective and professional life. Mood may vary for other less easily identifiable reasons, such as day length or hormonal changes. These fluctuations sometimes recur regularly, as is the case for the winter depression.
Some people are more prone to these cyclic mood swings, also called cyclothymia. They experience a more or less regular alternation of periods of happiness and sadness, without this phenomenon preventing them from living normally. As long as it remains bearable, cyclothymia is not a real disease.
What is bipolar disorder?
Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic-depressive psychosis, is characterized by mood swings disproportionate in duration and intensity.. Cheerfulness becomes exaggerated euphoria, sadness are expressed by a depression deep.
The behavioral disorders that accompany these phases profoundly disorganize the life of the person affected and deteriorate their family and professional relationships. The bipolar disorders is a disease that can be serious and requires long-term treatment.
Bipolar disorder symptoms
The symptoms of the bipolar disorders are cycles in which phases of excitement, also called mania, and depression. These cycles are often linked by periods when the mood is normal. They have an intensity, duration, and frequency that varies from person to person.
The alternation of symptoms can be impressive, between hyperactivity, aggressiveness, lack of inhibition, then sadness, overwhelm and total demotivation.
Depending on the symptoms, it is sometimes referred to as bipolar disorder type 1 and type 2. . The bipolar disorder type 1 is characterized by one or more manic or mixed episodes with or without major depressive episodes. The bipolar disorder type 2 associates at least one major depressive episode with hypomania.
What are excitement phases or manic phases?
A person in the manic phase is abnormally euphoric, energetic, hyperactive or aggressive. She is elated and conceives an unreasonable confidence in herself. She no longer has any inhibitions, does or says what goes through her mind, without worrying about the consequences of her actions and her words.
She has a very high opinion of herself and does not support any criticism. She is irritable and loses her temper.
His thought is accelerated. She talks a lot, follows several ideas at once, willingly jumps from cock to a donkey. She teems with often incongruous projects, moves constantly, never feels tired. She may forget to eat for several days and sleeps little. His se**xual urges are heightened. This state can last several days or even several weeks.
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Some patients appreciate these manic episodes during which they feel invincible and think that nothing and no one can resist them. Some of them turn out to be very successful professionally or very creative, during a manic phase.
But mania mostly has negative consequences. The person can act in a reckless way and cause real upheavals in his life (quitting his job or incurring reckless expenses, for example). Sometimes people suffering from bipolar disorders end up in trouble with the law for crimes committed during manic phases.
|What is hypomania?
|Hypomania is an attenuated form of a manic state. The person is very energetic, behaves impulsively or recklessly, frequent quarrels with those around him. Her condition is pleasant to her and she denies being ill all the more easily as her troubles do not disturb her daily life too much. Hypomania is often an early sign of bipolar disorder.
What are depressive phases?
When the depressive phase sets in, discouragement set in within a few days or weeks. The higher the manic phase, the more depression will be deep. From hyperactive, the person becomes indifferent to everything, downcast.
The symptoms are those of a severe depression, such as sadness, overwhelm, slowing of thought and movement, constant fatigue, demotivation, sleep and appetite disorders. These manifestations last two to three times longer than the manic phases, often for several weeks to several months. Sui**cidal thoughts are common.
Sui**cide is wrongly considered, by the patient, as the only way to free himself from his illness and no longer subject those around him to it.
What are mixed phases?
In some patients, there are so-called mixed phases. During these periods, the person simultaneously presents with symptoms of mania and depression: hustle, sleeping troubles and appetite, sui**cidal thoughts, etc. Mixed phases are sometimes observed between the end of a manic attack and the beginning of a depressive episode.
What is the cycle frequency?
A cycle consists of a manic phase, a depressive phase and possibly the normal phase which separates them. The length of a cycle is highly variable, ranging from a few hours to a year or more.
The frequency of the cycles is also very variable. Most untreated sufferers go through eight to ten manic-depressive cycles in their lifetime, but others will go through several cycles in a year.
The disease is said to be rapid-cycling when the person develops more than four cycles in a year. Treatments and living conditions influence the frequency of repeat cycles. A patient who is well cared for and surrounded will be more likely to see the cycles become less frequent.
How does bipolar disorder develop?
When the background treatment by the regulators of the mood is effective, the intensity and frequency of manic-depressive cycles decrease significantly, allowing the person to return to a normal life.
After several months of treatment, the cycles may become less frequent until they disappear completely. For this reason, all people suffering from bipolar disorders should be dealt with.
Without treatment, the cycles continue and their frequency may increase. The intensity of the manic and depressive phases may also worsen. In some cases, sick people develop symptoms of psychosis, hallucinations and delirium, insistently defending false and illogical beliefs despite evidence to the contrary.
The complications of bipolar disorders are many. Without treatment, an estimated 25% of people with bipolar disorder make one or more sui**cide attempts. The risks of alco**holism and drug addiction are significant and the associated behavioral problems can have serious consequences, including divorce, dismissal or imprisonment.