Atom definition
Atom Definition

10 Atom Definitions, and The Origin of Atomic Theory

According to the physics lesson, Atom theory is a matter of fundamental or basic material. This material is all source to know the physics further.

Atom Definition

Atomic definitions are the smallest part of a substance that cannot be divided in a way that is a regular chemical reaction. Atoms consist of a positively charged atomic nucleus (composed of protons and neutrons), with an electron as the cloud surrounding it.

Atom definition according to experts

Atom definition by Robert Boyle

It started from Robert Boyle’s statement about the atomic explanation which he put forward in 1661 with the release of a book titled “The Sceptical Chymist” and contained an atomic theory where the Earth and its contents (the material listed therein) were the acquisition of a variety of different atomic mixtures.

Definition of atoms based on Antoine Lavoisier

Later in 1789 emerged scientist named Antoine Lavoisier, who co-expressed his opinion about the atom with the name of the element which is one of the basic material that has the ability that is not able to be divided evenly analyzed by using chemical methods.

Atomic definition by Democritus

The theory of atoms further arises from a scientist named Democritus, which expresses when an atom is a small collection of particles in number after it has been kept and composed almost all the material in the universe. In other terms, this theory mentions when the material is in the world and its contents are a component of the atomic element.

Atomic definition by Stern Gerlach

The atomic theory continued to grow until 1922, and then one scientist also expressed his opinion about the atoms of his research to prove that atoms actually have special properties. 

In quantum mechanics, the Stern-Gerlach experiment, whose name comes from Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach, is an experiment examining the deflection of elementary particles. This experiment is often used to demonstrate basic principles of quantum mechanics.

Definition of atoms based on Bohr

Not enough until the mystery of the atom is also called a Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, who explained about atomic theory. Originated from the failure of the Rutherford theory, Bohr tested supplementing all those patches of weak side preceding the theory with three provisions:

  • The first provision of an electron-generated turnover by surrounding the nucleus with a stationary path designation.
  • The second condition describes the fact that electrons have the ability to perform migrations from one pass to another as well as the existing rotations.
  • Electron-allowed trails are tracks that have a multiple of round angular momentum.

Definition of atoms based on J. J. Thomson

The waviness theory of Dalton’s atoms indirectly was more due to the emergence of a new theory of scientists named J. J Thomson. According to him, Atom is more like a ball that has the ability of energy or charge positive and negative as in the proton and neutron and can also expand evenly.

Atom definition based on John Dalton

The next most famous atomic theory is present in 1803 through a scientist named John Dalton who mentions that the reason elements can always react as well as the gas properties that are constantly soluble in water from other gases that are certainly contained in the function of atoms that are then spelled out deeper, in fact, on any element that has an atomic element with a singular nature is stated to be unified with other chemical compounds.

Definition of atoms by J. Desaulx

One of the original physicist, Jean Perrin, who conducted an experiment on the atomic era also spoke about his opinion on the atomic theory by using experiments from Einstein’s creation which was then used to test the mass and atomic magnitudes on a cathode.

Atomic definition by Ernest Rutherford

One notable scientist named Ernest also said of an atomic theory in which atoms are part of a particle that has a nucleus or it is commonly referred as an atomic nucleus. In the nucleus, there are two known particles with protons and neutrons.

Origin of atomic theory

The word atom comes from the Greek “Atomos” meaning “”indivisible”. The basic concept of atoms was first proposed by the Democritus (Greeks) in the early 4th century BCE.

According to the theory in which it is found, an object can be divided into very small portions that can eventually be subdivided so-called atoms. According to Democritus, the atom is fully dense, it has no internal structure, as well as there is empty space between atoms to make room for its movement (such as movements in water and air, or solid objects flexibility).

In addition, Democritus also explains that to explain the differences in the properties of different materials, atoms are distinguished into their shape, mass and size. Based on the atomic model he made, Democritus is able to explain that all objects consist of smaller parts called atoms. 

However, this model of Democritus lacked experimental evidence until starting in the 1800s new theories based on the results of the experiment.

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Last Updated on August 19, 2020 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team

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